Creative Writing

Creative Writing

I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

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    Plotinus

    Plotinus

    Plotinus, who lived in Roman Egypt, was a major philosopher of Hellenism. His philosophy comprises three principles, illustrated in the Enneads: The One, the Intellect and the Spirit. His teacher was Ammonius Saccas, who had characteristic Platonics. The word Neoplatonism was invented by historians of the 19th century and credited to Plotinus and his philosophy, inspired during the Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Most of the biographical details of Plotinus comes from Porphyry's preface to his Edition of Enneads of Plotinus. His philosophical writings have inspired Pagan, Jewish, Catholic, Gnostic, and Islamic metaphysicists and mystics for centuries, including the development of precepts that form the dominant theological doctrines within religions, such as his research on the duality of the One in two metaphysical States. This concept is similar to the Christian notion that Jesus, a central belief in Christian theology, is both God and Man. Porphyry claimed that when Plotinus died in 270, Emperor Claudius II's second year of reign, he was 66 years old and thus gave us the year of his teacher's birth as around 205 years ago. Eunapius believed that Plotinus was born in the Deltaic Lycopolis of Egypt, leading to speculations that he could be Egyptian, Egyptian, Hellenized, Roman, or Greek. Plotinus was strongly distrustful of materiality, taking the view that things were a bad picture or mimicry of anything "higher and more intelligible" which was "the true part of genuine Being." This mistrust extended to the body, including his own; Porphyry says he refused to have his portrait painted at one point, possibly for much of the same reasons of dislike. Likewise, Plotinus never listed his family, childhood, or birthplace or date. On all accounts his personal and social life has displayed the highest moral and ethical values. Interestingly, while at Rome, Plotinus won the respect of Emperor Gallienus and his wife Salonina. At one point, Plotinus tried to involve Gallienus in rebuilding an abandoned city in Campania, known as the 'City of Philosophers,' where the inhabitants would live under the constitution of Plato's Laws. An Imperial subsidy was never granted for reasons unknown to Porphyry, who is recording the case. Plotinus wrote the essays that, over a period of several years, became the Enneads, or group of nine, from 253 to a few months before his death seventeen years later. Porphyry suggests that the Enneads were merely the overwhelming collection of arguments and essays that Plotinus used before being compiled and arranged by himself in his lectures and debates, rather than a formal text. Due of his poor eyesight, Plotinus was unable to rewrite his own work, and, according to Porphyry, his writings required thorough editing: his master's handwriting was atrocious, his words were not properly differentiated, and he cared little for spelling niceties. Plotinus secretly despised the editing process and turned the job over to Porphyry, who not only streamlined it but also put it into the system we have now. Plotinus connected his "one" with the "sweet" concept, and the principle of beauty. Considered superficially, Plotinus appears to suggest an alternative to the traditional Christian notion of ex nihilo life, but in any of his works, Plotinus never discusses Christianity. However, the metaphysics of emanation, like the metaphysics of Creation, suggests the absolute transcendence of the One or of the Divine as the source of the Life of all things that remain transcendent to them in their own nature; the One is in no way influenced or diminished by these emanations, just like the Christian God is in no way affected by any "nothingness" beyond. Using a groundbreaking analogy that would become central to the metaphysics of developed Christian thinking, Plotinus likes the One to the Sun that emanates light indiscriminately without weakening, or reflection in a mirror that does not degrade or change the entity being reflected in some way.
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    Parmenides

    Parmenides

    Parmenides of Elea, a Greek pre-Socratic scholar from Elea, was at Magna Graecia. The parmenides of Elea were in her prime, around 475 BC. The floruit was mentioned by Diogenes Laertius in 504-501 BC. And when the latter was still very young, he visited Athens when he was about sixty-five years old, and met Socrates; that is, when Socrates was about twenty, the meeting took place about 450 BC, making Parmenides 'floruit 475 BC. Parmenides was seen as the father of metaphysics or ontology, since it inspired much of Western philosophy's development. Paradoxically, Zeno's motion was about defending Parmenides's views. Parmenides 'only known work is a poem, On Life, containing the first systematic declaration in philosophy literature, of which only fragments are left. In truth two true principles are defined by Parmenides. He explains how one is all life in "the way of nature," how impossible change is, and how the existence is eternal, constant and necessary. Throughout "the way of thought," Parmenides explores the nature of pictures, throughout which one's sensory impressions lead to inaccurate and deceitful encounters and he provides a cosmology. Parmenides 'theory was clarified with the phrase, what is and what is not. He also gets nothing good out of the word associated with it. Controversy between Heraclitus and Parmenides, reintroduced the debates on time theory A and time theory B. Parmenides was born in the Greek colony of Elea which according to Herodotus was founded shortly before 535 BC. He was born into an ancient, affluent family. It's been said he wrote the area's rules. His age is uncertain; according to doxographer Diogenes Laërtius, he died sometime before 500 BC which would close his birth year to 540 BC but at the age of 65, when Socrates was a young man, Plato visited Athens in dialogue with Parmenides. 450 BC which, if the birth year is right, would mean c. 515 BC. The proem is a collection of hallucinations in which the hero wanders "through the known paths of man," in order to obtain an understanding from an unseen god of the nature of reality. Instead, Aletheia, who suffered an estimated 90%, and doxa, half of which no longer exists, are presented as the whispered discovery of the goddess without any accompanying plot. In the form of a truth, Parmenides tried to differentiate between the unity of nature and its plurality, insisting on the continuity of his life, which is therefore the object of knowledge, and on the unreality of its sense, which is therefore the object not of knowledge but of feeling. He advocated a theory of the essence of life and its development in The Way of Thought, while pointing out that these cosmological speculations do not pretend to be anything but mere presence in keeping with the principles already known. Within the proem, Parmenides describes the poet's journey from our mortal worlds to a mystical destination, accompanied by the maidens of the everyday universe. Carried in a whirling chariot, and accompanied by Helios the Sun's daughters, the man enters a holy temple to an unknown goddess who sings the rest of the poem. He claims that "A is not" can never be truthfully thought or told, and that everything remains as one, massive, unchanging being in the midst of appearances. One of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of being is generally named, contrasting with Heraclitus 'statement that "None ever step into the same water twice" as one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of becoming. Scholars have generally believed that Heraclitus responded to Parmenides, or that Heraclitus responded to Parmenides. Alexius Meinong established near Parmenides that only the "golden point" is possible, because it can be spoken of. The goddess resides in a region of traditional mythology: the place where Night and Day come together. The fundamental concept here is that the opposites are all indivisible, or similar. He wants to know more, she tells him that while one is unable to rely on human opinions, they are part of the truth.
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    Panaetius

    Panaetius

    Panaetius of Rhodes was Stoic-born philosopher. He was a student of Diogenes of Babylon and Tarsus Antipater at Athens when he went to Rome where he had done much to introduce Stoic philosophies to the region. After Scipio's death in 129 BC, he returned to Stoic school in Athens, and was his last undisputed scholar. With Panaetius, stoicism had become all the more nuanced. His most famous writing was his On Works, the central point in Cicero's use of the same name in his own writing. Panaetius, son of Nicagoras, was born around 185–180 BC into an ancient and revered Rhodian family. He is said to have been a student of the linguist Crates of Mallus, who taught in Pergamum, then returned to Athens where he attended lectures on Critolaus then Carneades, but was mainly associated with Stoic Diogenes of Babylon and his mentor Antipater of Tarsus. Although it is sometimes thought that he was chosen as 'Priest of Poseidon Hippios' by the Lindos people on Rhodes, this was in reality a right granted to his mother, who was also called Panaetius, son of Nicagoras Himself by Gaius Laelius, who had attended the lectures of Diogenes, and then Panaetius. He was introduced to the Aemilian Scipio Africanus and before him, he got his fondness as a Polybius. Only Panaetius and Polybius accompanied him at the Roman embassy, and in 139-138 BC Scipio went to the major Hellenistic Eastern monarchs and polities. Besides Polybius he was a member of the Scipionic Chamber. He returned to Rome via Scipio where he had done a great deal to bring together Stoic ideas and Greek philosophy. He'd had as students a number of notable Romans such as Q. The scaevola of Augur, and of Q. Aelius Tubero: The Stoic. After Scipio's death in spring 129 BC, he lived at turns in Athens and Rome but mainly in Athens, where he succeeded Antipater of Tarsus as head of the Stoic Academy. He had been granted the right of citizenship by the Athenians but he refused. Posidonius was the first university pupil. At some point, he died in Greece, in 110/09 BC, the same year as L. There Panaetius no longer encountered the orator Crassus, or his friend Mnesarchus. The modern global development of Stoic philosophy started with Panaetius; and among the Neoplatonists he exchanged also for a Platonist. He has always assigned Physics first place in philosophy for that purpose, not Logic, and no initial study of the latter seems to have been undertaken. He dismissed the Stoic argument about the conflagration of the world of philosophy; sought to justify the division of the senses of the soul; and doubted the nature of divination. Via ethics he accepted only a double division of morality, metaphysical and practical, leading to the dianoetic and ethical aristotle. He wanted to bring the true meaning of life closer to human nature, and to demonstrate the inseparability of values through similes. Through Demosthenes 'speeches he concluded that a key theme is the recognition of morality as something to seek for his own sake. He rejected the apathy hypothesis, recognising that all pleasurable emotions can be preserved in accordance with nature. He also stressed that the moral principles should be placed in such a way as to be obeyed by the individual who has not yet mastered wisdom. Maybe Panaetius 'finest piece of work was his treatise, On Duties, published in three volumes. Through this, he tried to answer, first, what was ethical or immoral; then, what was useful or unhelpful; and finally, how to overcome the evident conflict between the ideal and the practical; for as a Stoic, he could only see the disparity as apparent and not true. He had obviously prepared the third inquiry at the end of the third book but had not carried it out; and his disciple Posidonius seems to have delivered only timidly and imperfectly what had been anticipated.
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    Philolaus

    Philolaus

    Philolaus was a pre-Socratic, Pythagorean philosopher from Greece. He argued that the function played by the limiting and infinite which blends in harmony together is at the core of everything. He also gets credited with the root of the notion that the Earth was not the centre of the universe. According to August Böckh, who cites Nicomachus, Philolaus had been the successor to Pythagoras. Born in all parts of Magna Graecia, either in Croton, or Tarentum, or Metapontum, Philolaus is known as. His most likely originating from Croton is. He may have left the second meeting-place of Pythagoreans burning around 454 BC, after which he moved to Greece. According to Plato's Phaedo, he was the tutor of Simmias and Cebes at Thebes, about the time the Phaedo happens in 399 BC. This will make him a contemporary Socrates, which is in line with this Philolaus 'claim this Democritus was contemporary. In several later writers 'books, the various accounts of his life are scattered, and are of doubtful value to reconstruct his life. He probably lived for some time at Heraclea, where he was a pupil of Aresas, or Arcesus. Diogenes Laërtius is the only source to suggest Plato travelled to Italy shortly after the death of Socrates, where he encountered Philolaus and Eurytus. There were also Xenophilus, Phanto, Echecrates, Diocles, and Polymnastus in Philolaus 'pupils. As for his death, Diogenes Laërtius described a dubious storey that killed Philolaus at Croton because he was accused of attempting to be the tyrant; a storey that Laërtius also took the trouble of placing into writing. Diogenes Laërtius, as Aulus Gellius and Iamblichus do, speaks of Philolaus writing one book, but he talks of three books elsewhere. It should have been one treatise, divided into 3 volumes. It is said that Plato procured a copy of his book from which Plato wrote much of his Timaeus, it was assumed later. Some of the plays of Philolaus was entitled On Creation, which seems to be the same work that Stobaeus calls On The World, and from which he holds a series of passages. Most writers refer to a work named Bacchae, which for the same work may have been a different name, and may have originated in Arignote. However, it was mentioned that Proclus defines the Bacchae as a book for the teaching of theology in mathematics. Pythagoras and his earliest predecessors clearly did not follow any of their written teachings. Many of the key Pythagorean doctrines, passed down as heirlooms in their families, were collected in a written form under strict injunctions, according to Porphyrius Lysis and Archippus, which were not to be made public. And despite the numerous and conflicting accounts of the matter, Philolaus is relatively reliably credited with the first publication of the Pythagorean doctrines. He wrote a three-volume work on the Pythagorean philosophy which, it is said, Plato procured at the cost of 100 minae via Dion of Syracuse, who bought it from Philolaus who was in deep poverty at the time. Philolaus rejected the conceptions of fixed direction of space and developed one of the first non-geocentric views of the universe. His new way of thought revolved around the imaginary celestial force which he called the Central Fire, very literally. In Philolaus's scheme a sphere of fixed stars, the five planets, the Sun, Moon, and Earth, passed all around its Central Circle. According to Aristotle's writing in Metaphysics, Philolaus added a tenth unseen body, he called Counter-Earth, since without it there would only be nine spinning bodies, and the theory of Pythagorean numbers required one tenth. According to Greek historian George Burch, however, Aristotle was lamping out the theories of Philolaus. In fact, the ideas of Philolaus predated hundreds of years to the concept of spheres. About two thousand years later, in De Revolutionibus, Nicolaus Copernicus would note that Philolaus already knew of the revolution around a central fire in the universe. It has been pointed out, however, that Stobaeus betrays a propensity to misinterpret the dogmas of early Ionian philosophers, and he combines Platonism with Pythagoreanism on occasion. At the root of all, Philolaus concluded, is the role played by the concepts of limit and limitlessness.
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    Plato

    Plato

    Throughout the Classical Period Plato was an Athenian philosopher in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought, and the Academy, the first Western institution of higher learning. He is widely regarded as the central figure in the history of Ancient Greek and Western philosophy along with his tutor, Socrates and his most famous student, Aristotle. As one of the founders of Western philosophy and religion, Plato was most frequently quoted. The so-called Neoplatonism of philosophers such as Plotinus and Porphyry inspired St Augustine and hence Christianity. Once again, Alfred North Whitehead noted that the strongest general characterisation of the European intellectual tradition is that it consists of a series of Plato footnotes. For theory, Plato was the innovator for dialectical forms and written dialogue. Plato is also known for being the founder of Western political theory. His most famous contribution is the Theory of Forms, known for pure reason, in which Plato addresses the problem of the universals known as Platonism. He is also the source of Platonic affection, and Platon's solids. His own most important intellectual influences are widely considered to have been alongside Socrates, the pre-Socratic Pythagoras, Heraclitus, and Parmenides, but none of his predecessors 'works remain, and the bulk of what we know about these figures today derives from Plato himself. Unlike the work of virtually all of his contemporaries, Plato's entire body of work is thought to have existed intact for more than 2400 years. With their success fluctuating over the years, from the time they were written, Plato's works have never been without readers. There is little known about the early life and education of Plato, owing to a lack of surviving accounts. Plato had belonged to an aristocratic family of distinction. Plato's father Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus, and the king of Messenia, Melanthus, as stated by doxographer Diogenes Laërtius, according to a disputed tradition. Contrary to his reticence about himself, in his dialogues, Plato frequently addressed, or referred to, his respected relatives. In addition to Adeimantus and Glaucon in the Republic, Charmides has a dialogue, named after him; and Critias speaks in both Charmides and Protagoras. Such and other references demonstrate great family pride, so let us recreate Plato's family tree. According to Burnet, "the opening scene of the Charmides is a glorification of the whole relationship ... Plato's dialogues are not just a reference to Socrates but also the better days of his own people." The fact that in his maturity the philosopher called himself Platon is unquestionable, but the origin of this name remains unquestioned. Platon is a nickname for 'big' adjective platýs. While Platon was a fairly popular name, the name in the familiar line known as Plato does not appear. The sources of Diogenes Laërtius justify this by saying that Ariston of Argos, his wrestling coach, named him strong because of his chest and shoulders, or that Plato derived his name from the strength of his eloquence, or his broad front. While recalling a moral lesson on frugal living Seneca mentions the root of Plato's name: "His very name was given to him because of his broad chest." He is known by ancient sources as a bright but modest boy who excelled in his studies. Apuleius tells us that as a child, Speusippus respected Plato's speed of mind and modesty, and that "the first fruits of his youth were filled with hard work and love of learning." His father sacrificed everything possible to give his son a good education, and so Plato would have been taught in grammar, music, and gymnastics by the most distinguished teachers of his day. Plato several times invokes Damon in the Constitution. Plato was a wrestler and Dicaearchus went so far as to say that at the games in Isthmian Plato wrestled. Plato also attended philosophy courses; first, before meeting Socrates, he got to know Cratylus and the Heraclitean doctrines.
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    Nicomachus

    Nicomachus

    Gerasa's Nicomachus was a significant older mathematician best known in Greek for his pieces Introduction to the Arithmetic and Harmonic Manual. He was born in Gerasa, in the roman Syrian province, and was highly influenced by Aristotle. He was a Neopythagorean, who has written numerical spiritual tests. The history of Nicomachus is unclear, but he was a Pythagorean originally from Gerasa. Historians call him a Neopythagorean, based on his ability to see the mystical properties of numbers. The time he lived in is known only because he mentions Thrasyllus in his Harmonics Text, and because Apuleius probably translated his Introduction to Arithmetic into Latin in the mid-2nd century. A noble-born lady, at whose behest Nicomachus wrote a book showing a reputation as a respected scholar, was addressed to his Harmonics Manual. He is exploring his desire to compose a more meaningful piece of writing, and how he falls short of the journeys he sometimes makes. A homage to Algebra, the lesser work of mathematics. Nicomachus as a Neo-Pythagorean has always had a greater interest in the enigmatic properties of numbers than in their mathematical properties. Freud differentiates between the purely abstract immaterial number which Freud sees as the 'divine number' and the numbers which measure concrete objects, the 'atomic' number, according to Henrietta O. Midonick. He writes extensively on mathematics, particularly the importance of prime numbers and perfect numbers, and asserts that arithmetic is, and is their source, ethically superior to the other mathematical sciences. Boethius 'De institutione arithmetica' is merely a translation of the work into the Latin. However, Arithmetic's implementation contains very fundamental errors which indicate that Nicomachus did not want to give proof of his results because he did not actually have such data. Although Nicomachus acknowledged all the findings in as empirical a geometrical form as they appeared in Euclid with proof. Nicomachus often considers an clearly incorrect assertion and then explains it with an example having the properties defined in the background. From this we can deduce that some of the findings are merely suppositions based on numerical case proof. While being preceded by the Babylonians and the Chinese, Nicomachus produced one of the earliest tables of Greco-Roman multiplication, while a wax tablet dates back to the 1st century. Is the oldest known Greek table for multiplication. Harmonic del Manuale. This is the first major treatise on music theory since Aristoxenus and Euclid's time. It provides the oldest remaining evidence of Pythagoras 'epiphany storey outside of a smithy in which the pitch is determined by numerical proportions. Nicomachus also provides the first detailed explanation of the relationship between music and world organisation through "sphere music." The subject of the role of ear and speech in Nicomachus 'understanding of music unites Aristoxenian and Pythagorean interests, usually viewed as antitheses. Nicomachus frequently addresses the instruments of his day during important debates, and thus offers a valuable guide. Aside from the Textbook, ten fragments survive from what appears to have originally been a more extensive piece of music. Nicomachus was interested in all-number mathematical problems, even and odd numbers classification and their ratios as well as wondrous or interesting numerical properties. Nonetheless, as seen in Euclid's Books VII-IX, he was not interested in whole-number theorems and their proofs; contrary to Euclid's system, Nicomachus would merely offer specific numerical examples. A Latin translation of the Arithmētikē by Lucius Apuleius is lost but a version by Ancius Boethius survived and was used in schools up to the Renaissance era. On the two-volume Theologoumena arithmetikēs, Nicomachus also wrote about the theory of Pythagorean music and the mysterious properties of numbers; only parts of the latter remain.