Creative Writing

Creative Writing

I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

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  • Creative Writing
    Published about 15 hours ago
    Heraclitus

    Heraclitus

    Heraclitus of Ephesus son of Bloson was a Greek Ionian pre-Socratic writer, and a native of the city of Ephesus, in modern-day Turkey and later part of the Persian Empire. He was called "The Enigmatic" back in antiquity, given his oracular and paradoxical side of mind, and his fondness for word play. He has written one book, On Nature, but its appearance in fragments only exacerbates the gloom. His enigmatic pronouncements are the focal point of many definitions. He has been used in numerous cases as a reality monist or method philosopher; a logical cosmologist, a metaphysicist, or simply a philosophical thinker; an empiricist, a rationalist, or a mystic; a mainstream scientist or a revolutionary; a modern theorist or one who rejects the rule of non-contradiction; the first true philosopher or an anti-intellectual obscurantist. He considered himself, in wisdom, as an autodidact and a founder. He was considered a misanthrope susceptible to depression; in contrast to Democritus he was sometimes referred to as the crying one, Heraclitus assumed the universe was conforming to the Logos. In the end he said the universe was made of stone, too. He was committed to a resolution of worldwide disputes and stability. He was most notable for his insistence on ever-present transition, or motion, or being, as the universe's characteristic attribute, as described in the popular saying, "No man ever steps twice in the same stream," as well as "Panta rhei," all flow. He contrasted this component of his philosophy with that of Parmenides, who believed in being, and that nothing improves. Each one inspired Plato, and then all of Western thought. Heraclitus epochs are unknown. Scholars have usually agreed that either Parmenides responded to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus replied to Parmenides, though views ranged from the 20th to the 21st centuries about who replied. Most of the figure of Parmenides referred to Heraclitus, and hence Heraclitus became the older of them. On Parmenides, Heraclitus is absent but Parmenides may appear to refer to him and Heraclitus refers to the likes of Pythagoras. In the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the main temples of the 6th century BC and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Diogenes Laërtius states that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the young. He refused to state that the constitution was ponêra when asked to start writing laws, which may either mean that it was deeply defective or that it was found laborious. Two remaining letters, cited by Diogenes Laërtius, are probably later falsifications between Heraclitus and Darius I. Heraclitus was no defender of liberty because he is the greatest, he is ten thousand to me. He is widely recognized as an enemy of democracy. And he assumes that everyone has a right to self-assurance and rational judgement and that feeling is normal to everyone. Heraclitus underscored a heedless human unconsciousness. The awake has one shared universe, but each turns the unconscious back into its own reality. Dropsy's career as a doctor had begun in Heraclitus. The physicians he knew were not in a hurry to recommend a cure. Diogenes Laërtius tells several tales of Heraclitus 'death: Heraclitus was cured of dropsy in two accounts, and died of another illness. Nevertheless, in one account the philosopher "entered himself in a cowshed, thinking that the noxious humour was driven out of him by the heat of the manure," while in another he washed himself with a liniment of cow manure and died and was interred in the market after a day of being exposed to the light. According to Cyzicus Neathes, after he smeared himself with dung, Heraclitus was devoured by wolves. Upon 478 BC, he died of hydropsia. Heraclitus was known to have produced one piece of papyrus, On Purpose. Diogenes Laërtius tells us that as a dedication Heraclitus had his book put in the Artemisium.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 15 hours ago
    Gorgias

    Gorgias

    Gorgias was an ancient Greek sophist, pre-Socratic philosopher, and rhetorician of the Sicilian Leontinoi. He reflects the first generation of Sophists after Protagoras. Several doxographers say he was a pupil of the Empedocles although he was just a few years younger. "Like most Sophists, he was an itinerant who appeared in various cities and gave public exhibitions of his abilities at the great pan-Hellenic centers of Olympia and Delphi, and paid fees for his training and presentation. A curious characteristic of his shows was to ask the audience miscellaneous questions and to give impromptu replies. He was dubbed "the Nihilist Gorgias," but it is unclear to what degree this epithet adequately represents his ideology. His greatest argument of praise is that he transplanted rhetoric from the ancestral Sicily of Attica and helped spread the vocabulary of the Attic as the language for literary prose. Gorgias was born in Leontinoi, a Chalcidian colony in eastern Sicily allying with Athens, at approximately 483BCE. Charmantides was named after his father. He had a brother who was a physician called Herodicus who followed him often on his journeys. He also had a friend who is obscure by name but whose grandfather dedicated a golden statue at Delphi to his great uncle. It's not known whether Gorgias got married or had kids. Under the Sicilian philosopher Empedocles of Acragas Gorgias is said to have taught but it is not known when, when, how long or in what power. He may also have trained under the Syracuse and Tisia Corax rhetoricians, but very little is known about any of these people, nor is anything known about their connection to Gorgias. In his native Leontinoi, any role Gorgias may have played in politics is not known, but it is clear that in 427 BCE, when he was around 60 years old, his fellow men sent him to Athens as the head of an embassy to ask for Athenian defense against the Syracuseans 'hostility. Gorgias claims to have settled in mainland Greece after 427 BCE, residing at different points in a number of city-states such as Athens and Larisa. He was well known at Panhellenic Festivals for giving orations, and is identified at Olympia as "conspicuous." There's no residual evidence of whatever role he may have played in organizing the festival itself. Gorgias 'main position was as a language tutor. The students were Isocrates According to Aristotle. Additionally, although not regarded as his students, Gorgias is generally considered to have inspired the styles of the historian Thucydides, the tragic playwright Agathon, the veterinarian Hippocrates, the rhetorician Alcidamas, and the poet and commentator Lycophron. In general, the philosophies of pre-Socratic Greek Sophists are controversial among scholars because of their extremely complex and enigmatic works, and perhaps because they are best recognized as characters in Plato's dialogues. However, trying to explain Gorgias is extraordinarily challenging for contemporary scholars. Although scholars dispute the precise subtleties of the ideas of Protagoras, Hippias, and Prodicus, the basic foundations of what such philosophers thought are usually agreed upon. Nevertheless, academics usually argue with Gorgias on even the most fundamental aspects of his ideas, including whether or not the mechanism actually does exist. The greatest obstacle to Gorgias 'academic comprehension is that the vast majority of his works have been destroyed, and even surviving copyists have undergone significant improvements. These problems are further exacerbated by the fact that Gorgias 'vocabulary is often vague and confusing; he uses complex and sometimes incoherent metaphors, similes, and puns to explain much of his most significant statements. In many of Gorgias 'remarks this is often believed to be cynical, witty, or satirical. In his treatise On Rhetoric, Aristotle characterizes Gorgias 'oratory style as "pervasively pessimistic" and notes that Gorgias had given a serious response to jests and jests.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 15 hours ago
    Hypatia

    Hypatia

    Hypatia was a philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician from Hellenistic Neoplaton who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Roman Eastern Empire. She was a famous scholar of the Alexandria Neoplatonic School where she taught astronomy and philosophy. She is the first female mathematician who has a fairly well known existence. Hypatia was considered a great teacher and accomplished educator during her own lifetime. She is believed to have written a commentary on Diophantus 'thirteen-volume Arithmetica, which may have survived in part, interpolated to the original text of Diophantus, and yet another commentary on Perga's treatise on conic sections which has not been published Some contemporary historians also conclude that Hypatia may have written the original text of Ptolemy's Almagest, based on the title of h It is assumed that Hypatia built astrolabes and hydrometers, but none of these were invented and both were in use even before she was born. While she remained a pagan herself, she loved Christians and taught many students of Christianity, including the future Ptolemais bishop Synesius. Ancient texts state that pagans and Christians valued Hypatia equally, which had a major impact on Alexandria's political elite. Towards the end of her life, Hypatia met with Alexandria's Roman prefect Orestes, who was in the middle of a diplomatic dispute with Bishop Cyril of Alexandria. Rumors flew accusing Orestes of violating Cyril's harmony, and by March 415 A.D. She was assassinated by a mob led by a man named Peter. Death of Hypatia stunned the empire and proclaimed it a prophet for Islam, causing later Neoplatonists like Damascus to become even more fervent in their opposition to Christianity. Hypatia was co-opted in the Middle Ages as a sign of Christian virtue and scholars claim it was part of the basis for the legend of St Catherine of Alexandria. She had been a symbol in opposition to Catholicism during the Age of the Enlightenment. In the 19th century, European literature, in particular Charles Kingsley's 1853 novel Hypatia, romanticized her as "the last of the Hellenes." In the 20th century, Hypatia was seen as a symbol of women's rights and a precursor of the feminist movements. Many portrayals have connected Hypatia's death with the dissolution of the Alexandrian Library since the late twentieth century, ignoring historical proof suggesting the library no longer existed during the lifetime of Hypatia. Hypatia was the daughter of Alexandria's mathematician Theon According to classical scholar Edward J. Watts, Theon was the founder of a school called "the Mouseion," modeled after the Hellenistic Mouseion, whose membership ended in the 260s AD. The Theon school was free, highly honorable, and conservative in ideology. Theon opposed Iamblichus 'doctrines, and would have promoted a new, Plotinian Neoplatonism. While generally regarded at the time as a brilliant mathematician, scholarly expectations found Theon's mathematical work to be fundamentally "minor," "trivial," and "absolutely unoriginal." His greatest achievement was the development of a new version of Euclid's Elements, in which he rectified scribal mistakes that had been made over almost 700 years of copying. Theon's adaptation of Euclid's Elements was the textbook's most widely read version for decades, and has fully replaced all the other editions. Hypatia was a Neoplatonist but she opposed the teachings of Iamblichus like her father, and then followed Plotinus 'original Neoplatonism. At the time, the Alexandrian academy was known for its philosophy and Alexandria was considered second only to Athens as the Greco-Roman region's academic centre. Hypatia trained students from all over the world in Mediterranean. She also lectured according to Damascus on the works of Plato and Aristotle. He also states that she marched through Alexandria in a tribon, a type of robe that is popular with philosophers, giving impromptu lectures in public. According to Watts, two different variations of Neoplatonism were practiced in Alexandria during the late fourth century.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 16 hours ago
    Thrasymachus

    Thrasymachus

    Thrasymachus was an Antiquity Greek sophist better remembered as a Plato's Republic hero. Thrasymachus was a Chalcedonian citizen, on the Bosphorus. His life seems to have been spent at Athens as a sophist although the precise essence of his research and thesis remains uncertain. He is credited with an improvement in the rhythmic nature of the Greek oratory, particularly the use of paeonic rhythm in prose, and a greater appeal through gesture to the emotions. Aristophanes makes Thrasymachus, in a passing joke from a forgotten play dated to 427 BCE, echoes what is more specifically dateable. From this passage Nils Rauhut from the Internet Archive of Philosophy indicates that Thrasymachus may have taught many years before this point at Athens. A passage from Clement of Alexandria offers some extra meaning when comparing Thrasymachus with the Archelaus of Macedonia. Hence Rauhut notes specifically that in the last three decades of the 5th century, Thrasymachus was the most influential one. Dillon and Gergel propose the alternative hypothesis that the speech was written by Herodes Atticus, 2nd-century CE, to whom we have extracts similar in nature to Clement's text which reads as authentically 5th-century, showing a detailed knowledge of Thessalian politics. In Aristotle's Politics there is a man of the same name who overthrew the monarchy at Cyme but little is known about this case, nor can it be said with any degree of certainty that they are the same entity. In his Nuanced Refutations Aristotle again makes reference to a Thrasymachus, where he credits him with a crucial role in the growth of rhetorical philosophy. In addition, this is what happened with regard to rhetorical discourses and almost all other arts: for those who invented their roots, they only advanced them in a limited way, while today's celebrities are descendants of a long sequence of people who created them little by little and thereby formed them into their present form, Tisias coming after the first founders, Dillon and Gergel. More specifically written in the Rhetoric, Aristotle introduces a witty simile to Thrasymachus. Dillon and Gergel suggest this may justify Thrasymachus's choice of Plato as the "combative and bombastic adherent to his Republic's 'truth is true' doctrine." Against this theory, though, scholar Angie Hobbs suggests that this Thrasymachus 'purpose may be merely to highlight current hypocrisy, rather than applaud its abuse. Plato quotes Thrasymachus as a good rhetorician within his Phaedrus but assigns nothing important to him. The Byzantine Suda gives a brief description of the role of Thrasymachus as a rhetorical theorist. A Chalcedonian sophist, of the Chalcedon Bithynian. He was the first to discover time and colon, and he invented the new sort of rhetoric. He was the philosopher Plato's pupil, and the rhetoric of the Isocrates. The second sentence, Dillon and Gergel note, is an irrational argument, both in reference to Plato and Isocrates. We suggest a lacuna in the text in which Thrasymachus is considered another's pupil, and a rival to Plato and Isocrates. In his On Isaeus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus praises Thrasymachus for his numerous rhetorical skills, calling Thrasymachus sweet, clever and creative and capable of expressing as he pleases, either with terseness or an eruption of vocabulary. Nevertheless, Dionysus regarded Thrasymachus as a second-rate orator despite the incisive and beautiful Lysias, leaving no forensic speeches to posterity, merely manuals and display-talks. The present value of Thrasymachus derives in large part from his being a character in the Republic. In Leo Strauss's opinion, Thrasymachus and his idea of justice reflect the city and its laws, and are therefore in a way contradictory to Socrates and philosophy in general. As an intellectual, however, Thrasymachus possibly aligned enough with the philosopher to behave in favor of philosophy in the area.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 16 hours ago
    Simplicius of Cilicia

    Simplicius of Cilicia

    Simplicius of Cilicia was one of the last Neoplatonists to be a student of Ammonius Hermiae and Damascus. He was among the pagan scholars that Justinian persecuted in the early 6th century, and was forced to seek asylum at the Persian court for a while before being welcomed back into the empire. He'd written thoroughly on Aristotle's plays. While not all his works are original compositions but commentaries on Aristotle and other authors, his scholarly and prodigious expertise renders him the last great philosopher of pagan antiquity. His dissertation has maintained significant knowledge from earlier scholars, who otherwise may have been overlooked. Simplicius was an Ammonius Hermiae and Damascus pupil, and thus one of the last representatives of the Neoplatonist school. Secondary offices are in Athens. This has been the subject of the last attempts to preserve the Hellenistic order against Islamic invasions. Imperial edicts issued against paganism in the 5th century provided civilian protection against personal heathen ill-treatment. In the year 528 Emperor Justinian had ordered the expulsion of pagans from government offices. Some of their assets confiscated, others had been put to death. The declaration stated that were they to be removed from the Kingdom if they did not convert to Christianity within three months. Furthermore, Athens discouraged the exercise of ethics and jurisprudence any more. Possibly even the wealth of the Platonist Academy, priced at the time of Proclus at more than 1000 pieces of gold, was confiscated; at least Justinian deprived the physicians and teachers of the liberal arts of the provision-money provided to them by the former emperors and took money raised by the people for shows and other civic purposes. Seven philosophers, including Simplicius, Eulamius, Priscian and others, with Damascus at their side, the last president of the Platonist school in Athens, agreed to seek shelter in the court of the famous Persian king Chosroes, who ascended the throne in 531. And their expectations collapsed. Chosroes, concluded in a peace treaty with Justinian c 533 The philosophers were to be able to return without anxiety and to continue the practices which they left behind. We will not know much about the real experiences with the seven thinkers. We may not know where Simplicius lived and where he studied. This is proven not only by the address given to his hearers in Aristotle's commentary on the Physica Auscultatio, as well as the title of his commentary on the Divisions. He had been educated partly as a Damascus student in Alexandria under Ammonius, partly in Athens; and it was presumably in one of these two towns that he eventually took up residence; for, with the exception of those towns and Constantinople, it would have been difficult to find a town with the collections of books that he wanted, and he could not have gone to Constantinople. There are no definite allusions about his personal history in Simplicius's writings, particularly his migration to Persia. Only at the end of his description of the Epictetus 'treatise does Simplicius, with appreciation, discuss the consolation he had sought in these ethical contemplations under tyrannical tyranny; which may indicate that it was written during or shortly after the persecutions described above. The following works are his remarks on Aristotle's de Caelo, Physica Auscultatio, and Divisions as well as a commentary on the Epictetus Enchiridion. There is also a commentary on Aristotle's de Anima under his signature, but it is simplistic in stylistic terms and lacks the breadth of historical details normally used by Simplicius. Priscian of Lydia suggested it was written even though some scholars found it genuine. Before that, the commentary on de Caelo was written on the Physica Auscultatio, but presumably not in Alexandria, since he cites an astronomical discovery made by Ammonius during his stay in that city. After Damascus died, and even after his return from Persia, Simplicius wrote his commentary on the Physica Auscultatio
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 16 hours ago
    Philo

    Philo

    Philo of Alexandria, also known as Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who died in Alexandria, in the Egyptian Roman province. Philo used philosophical allegory to link the Jewish literature to Greek thought, particularly the Torah. His approach influenced the tradition of both Stoic philosophy and Jewish exegesis. For certain Christian Church Fathers his allegorical exegesis was significant but he had very little history of reception within Rabbinic Judaism. He followed allegorical interpretations of the Hebrew Bible, rather than literal ones. Several scholars claim early Christology was inspired by his interpretation of the Logos as God's theory of existence. Some scholars reject direct influence but claim they borrow from a common source, Philo and Early Christianity. The only event in Philo's history that can be clearly dated is his marriage at the Rome embassy at 40 CE. After civil war among the Jewish and Greek peoples of Alexandria he led the Alexandrian Jews in a delegation to the Roman Emperor Gaius. The storey of this incident is found in Josephus and in Philo's works themselves, in particular in Legatio ad Gaium, of which only two of the initial five volumes survive, along with a few other biographical details. Aristobulus of Paneas and the Alexandrian School, his work "Solomon's Wisdom" and the therapists and Essenes professions mainly influenced Philo's thought. Philo was never known as a priest or a Church Doctor. Philo may have been born under the name of Julius Philo. His parents and descendants had been predecessors of the Ptolemaic dynasty rule and Seleucid rule. Though his parents 'names are unknown, it is believed that Philo came from a noble, honorable, and wealthy background. It was either the Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar who granted his father or his paternal grandfather a roman citizenship. Jerome wrote that Philo originated in the "Common Priesthood." His ancestors and associates in Rome had social links and relations to the Judean priesthood, the Hasmonean dynasty, the Herodian dynasty, and the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Philo had two brothers, Lysimachus and Alexander the Alabarch. There were two nephews on Via Alexander Philo: Tiberius Julius Alexander, and Marcus Julius Alexander. The latter had been the Herodian princess Berenice's first husband. Marcus died, or 40's, in the 1940s. During his lifetime Philo had been to Jerusalem's Second Temple at least once. Philo and his Apostles must have been a predecessor of Jesus. We have been educated in the Hellenistic culture of Alexandria and Roman culture, in the practice of Ancient Egyptian culture, particularly in Judaism, in the study of traditional Jewish literature, and in Greek philosophy, to a degree. Philo's date of birth and death is uncertain but Philo's definition of himself as "late" can be proven because he was part of the 38 CE delegation of Gaius Caligula. Professor of Jewish history Daniel R. Schwartz predicts his birth year to be about 20-10 BCE at some point. Relation Philo made to an event during Emperor Claudius 'reign suggests that he died after 41 CE at some point. Through Legatio ad Gaium, Philo explains his diplomatic campaign against Gaius Caligula, one of the few well-known events in his career. He mentions having carried a letter detailing the Alexandrian Jews 'sufferings, and urging the emperor to pledge their freedom. To show the Alexandrian Greeks as the aggressors in the civil war that had left many Jews and Greeks dead, Philo offers a more detailed account of their suffering than Josephus. Philo resided in Alexandria in an age of growing ethnic conflict compounded by the new stringences of colonial rule. Many expatriate Hellenes blamed the Jews for a supposed pact with Rome at Alexandria, just though Rome tried to curb Jewish nationalism in Judea. In Against Flaccus, Philo mentions the Jewish state of Egypt, writing that they numbered no less than a million, and they controlled two of Alexandria's five districts. He describes the abusses perpetrated by the prefect Aulus Avilius Flaccus who says he has retaliated against the Jews in failing to serve Caligula as a god. Daniel Schwartz conjectures that, despite this volatile context, Philo's advocacy for theoretical monotheism may have been strategically useful, rather than transparent pro-Judeanism.