Heraclitus of Ephesus son of Bloson was a Greek Ionian pre-Socratic writer, and a native of the city of Ephesus, in modern-day Turkey and later part of the Persian Empire. He was called "The Enigmatic" back in antiquity, given his oracular and paradoxical side of mind, and his fondness for word play. He has written one book, On Nature, but its appearance in fragments only exacerbates the gloom. His enigmatic pronouncements are the focal point of many definitions. He has been used in numerous cases as a reality monist or method philosopher; a logical cosmologist, a metaphysicist, or simply a philosophical thinker; an empiricist, a rationalist, or a mystic; a mainstream scientist or a revolutionary; a modern theorist or one who rejects the rule of non-contradiction; the first true philosopher or an anti-intellectual obscurantist. He considered himself, in wisdom, as an autodidact and a founder. He was considered a misanthrope susceptible to depression; in contrast to Democritus he was sometimes referred to as the crying one, Heraclitus assumed the universe was conforming to the Logos. In the end he said the universe was made of stone, too. He was committed to a resolution of worldwide disputes and stability. He was most notable for his insistence on ever-present transition, or motion, or being, as the universe's characteristic attribute, as described in the popular saying, "No man ever steps twice in the same stream," as well as "Panta rhei," all flow. He contrasted this component of his philosophy with that of Parmenides, who believed in being, and that nothing improves. Each one inspired Plato, and then all of Western thought. Heraclitus epochs are unknown. Scholars have usually agreed that either Parmenides responded to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus replied to Parmenides, though views ranged from the 20th to the 21st centuries about who replied. Most of the figure of Parmenides referred to Heraclitus, and hence Heraclitus became the older of them. On Parmenides, Heraclitus is absent but Parmenides may appear to refer to him and Heraclitus refers to the likes of Pythagoras. In the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the main temples of the 6th century BC and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Diogenes Laërtius states that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the young. He refused to state that the constitution was ponêra when asked to start writing laws, which may either mean that it was deeply defective or that it was found laborious. Two remaining letters, cited by Diogenes Laërtius, are probably later falsifications between Heraclitus and Darius I. Heraclitus was no defender of liberty because he is the greatest, he is ten thousand to me. He is widely recognized as an enemy of democracy. And he assumes that everyone has a right to self-assurance and rational judgement and that feeling is normal to everyone. Heraclitus underscored a heedless human unconsciousness. The awake has one shared universe, but each turns the unconscious back into its own reality. Dropsy's career as a doctor had begun in Heraclitus. The physicians he knew were not in a hurry to recommend a cure. Diogenes Laërtius tells several tales of Heraclitus 'death: Heraclitus was cured of dropsy in two accounts, and died of another illness. Nevertheless, in one account the philosopher "entered himself in a cowshed, thinking that the noxious humour was driven out of him by the heat of the manure," while in another he washed himself with a liniment of cow manure and died and was interred in the market after a day of being exposed to the light. According to Cyzicus Neathes, after he smeared himself with dung, Heraclitus was devoured by wolves. Upon 478 BC, he died of hydropsia. Heraclitus was known to have produced one piece of papyrus, On Purpose. Diogenes Laërtius tells us that as a dedication Heraclitus had his book put in the Artemisium.