humanity

The evolution of humanity, from one advancement to the next.

  • Sabine Scott
    Published about 4 hours ago
    Human Exploitation and Scientific Development

    Human Exploitation and Scientific Development

  • TheRomantic
    Published 8 days ago
    Faith and Science, Together

    Faith and Science, Together

    “‘If I justify myself mine own mouth shall condemn me: if I say I am perfect, it shall prove me perverse’” (qtd. in Faraday Biography 105). Michael Faraday fervently agreed with these words found in the book of Job. This same man, nonetheless, radically changed science in the 19th century. Though he claimed to maintain a level of separation between his faith and his research, his scientific worldview was in many ways formed by his Christian convictions. It was with such a moral foundation that he practiced the disciplines for which he became admired and made the great discoveries for which he became known. The general understanding of the physical world in the present time owes much to the experimentation and ideas of this natural philosopher.
  • Emmanuel Atunsiri
    Published 10 days ago
    IS BILL GATES "THANOS" IN DISGUISE ?

    IS BILL GATES "THANOS" IN DISGUISE ?

    ometime on the 30th April 2019, "STAT" uploaded a video which asked "Bill Gates" 'What could cause, in a single year, an excess of 10 million deaths?
  • x
    Published about a month ago
    The Indigo Child: Reality or a Myth?

    The Indigo Child: Reality or a Myth?

    Who are the Indigo children? What special abilities do they possess? Is it a myth or truth that there are people with abilities unfamiliar to most of us?
  • Phil Cartwright
    Published 2 months ago
    Tawai

    Tawai

    Tawai is a word the nomadic hunter gatherers of Borneo use to describe the connection they feel to their forest home. In this dreamy, philosophical and sociological look at life, Bruce Parry (of the BBC's Tribe, Amazon & Arctic) embarks on an immersive odyssey to explore the different ways that humans relate to nature and how this influences the way we create our societies. From the forests of the Amazon and Borneo to the River Ganges and Isle of Skye, Tawai is a quest for reconnection, providing a powerful voice from the heart of the forest itself.
  • Velvet Aura
    Published 2 months ago
    It's the Turn-Around 20's

    It's the Turn-Around 20's

    I don't know about you but I'm getting that feeling that the attitude of the 90's are creeping back in... at least to the UK. I'm not talking so much about the excessive drug usage or 3-day benders... even though that's gotta take some type of strength that is commendable (perhaps not the type that we're trying to channel nowadays, but it's still something to look at in awe and say 'damn Universe, that's a hella lot of energy'). I'm talking more about the character, the mind-set, the approach to things that the youth of the 90's would have. The general character of the decade was so juicy and big, you feel as if you'd be on a huge sugar high from it that lasts years. Their uniqueness of everyone's personalities really stood out, and that's what I feel is going to come back.
  • Horoscope Specialist
    Published 2 months ago
    Get your full compatibility through Marriage prediction 2020

    Get your full compatibility through Marriage prediction 2020

    The Marriage Prediction is meant for giving you a broad outline nature of your marital life based on the planetary position in your birth chart. As per Vedic astrology, several factors influence the timing of a person’s marriage and chart the course of the married life. When it comes to marriage life, the Marriage Prediction helps you find out how the various planetary influences related to marriage chart shape your marital life.
  • test
    Published 2 months ago
    Timaeus of Locri

    Timaeus of Locri

    Timaeus of Locri is a hero in Timaeus and Critias, two of Plato's dialogues. In both he seems to be a Pythagorean school philosopher. If a historical Timaeus of Locri ever existed, he might have flourished in the fifth century BC, but his historicity is uncertain as he exists only as a literary character in Plato; all other ancient sources are either based on Plato or are fictitious accounts. Throughout Plato's plays, Timaeus emerges as a rich aristocrat from Lokroi Epizephyrioi's Greek colonies, who had worked in high offices in his native town before moving to Athens, where Timaeus 'dialogue is being held. Plato does not specifically mark Timaeus a Pythagorean, but provides the reader with enough clues to conclude that. He appears competent in all fields of ancient philosophy, especially astronomy and natural philosophy. Historical presence of Timaeus in the antiquity was without doubt. Cicero states that Plato was travelling with Timaeus and other Pythagoreans to Italy to study. The account of this encounter prompted Macrobius, a late antiquity scholar, to believe that Timaeus may not have been in a face-to-face conversation with Socrates, who had been long dead by the time of Timaeus. Iamblichus mentions Timaeus among the Pythagorean school's most notable leaders. In his Lives and Thoughts of Eminent Thinkers, Diogenes Laërtius indicates that Timaeus 'character was founded upon the Pythagorean Philolaus. Specific parallels to Timaeus can be found in Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus; in Simplicius 'essay on Aristotle; and in Porphyry, where Timaeus discusses Pythagoras's house at Croton. Recent scholarship appears to throw off the historicity of Timaeus, viewing him as a fictional character created by Plato from characteristics known to him by the Pythagoreans, such as Archytas. The primary explanation for granting Timaeus the status of a literary novel is the lack of any knowledge that actually may not derive from Plato's dialogues. This has been pointed out as a counterargument that the bulk of characters mentioned in Plato's dialogues are in fact historical individuals. A work in Doric Greek entitled On the Origin of the Earth and the Soul, also named Timaeus Locrus after its supposed creator, begins by claiming that Locri's Timaeus claimed the following and goes on to summarise the ideas that Timaeus supports in Timaeus's Plato. The novel has been thoroughly preserved, in over fifty copies. This is largely in line with Plato; this omits the Theory of Forms in particular. On the earth and the soul was first mentioned in the second century AD sources and in antiquity its authenticity was not questioned. The novel was also believed to have been a significant source of dialogue for Plato; a legend going back to the third century BC claimed that Plato's Timaeus was plagiarised from a Pythagorean text, and this was associated with the Timaeus Locrus. Modern philology has shown that On the Earth and the Soul is a pseudepigraph from sometime from the early 1st century BC to the early 1st century AD and is based on Plato's Timaeus, rather than the other way around. The Pseudo-Timaeus uses a condensed method of logic and analysis, offering conclusions rather than arguments and omitting any dialogue, suggesting that perhaps it was meant as a description of the famously complicated original for use in a classroom context. While it may have emerged in part as a series of lecture notes to the original Platonic, it appears to omit difficult parts of the Timaeus rather than include explanations. Without knowledge of Plato's work, some of Pseudo-Timaeus 'theses are very hard to grasp. On the Earth and the Soul contains traces of middle Platonist theories and terminology; in fact, it parallels works by Eudorus of Alexandria and Philo, making it possible that the author resided in Alexandria and was acquainted with the philosophy of Eudorus. Through integrating ideas from Hellenistic Astronomy and Medicine, he modernised the natural philosophy of Plato's Timaeus.
  • test
    Published 2 months ago
    Thales of Miletus

    Thales of Miletus

    Thales of Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor, was a Greek mathematician, astronomer, and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus. He had been one of Greece's Seven Sages. Some, most especially Aristotle, considered him the first philosopher in Greek history, and he is generally traditionally regarded as the first person known to have entertained and participated in scientific philosophy in Western civilization. As a predecessor to modern science, Thales is known for breaking from using myths to describe the earth and the cosmos, and then describing real events and phenomena by theories and hypotheses. While describing reality as deriving from a unity of all based on the presence of a single supreme material, nearly all the other pre-Socratic thinkers preceded him, instead of using mythological explications. Aristotle believed him to be the father of the Ionian School and confirmed Thales 'theory that a single material element was the original concept of existence and the essence of matter: water. In algebra, Thales used geometry to measure pyramid heights and ship's reach from land. He is the first known person to use geometry-applied deductive reasoning by deriving four corollaries from the theorem of Thales. He is the first known person to whom has been credited a mathematical discovery. The dates of Thales 'existence are not entirely known, but a few datable events listed in the sources loosely determine the dates. According to Herodotus, Thales predicted the solar eclipse of May 28, 585 BC. The chronicle of Apollodorus of Athens cites Diogenes Laërtius as saying that Thales died at the age of 78 after the 58th Olympiad and attributed his death to heat exhaustion while attending the games. Thales was presumably born in mid-620s BC in the town of Miletus. Writing during the 2nd century BC, the ancient writer Apollodorus of Athens believed Thales was born in the year 625 BC. In the fifth century BC, Herodotus identified Thales as "a Phoenician by distant descent." Tim Whitmarsh noted that Thales considered water as the primary concern, and his name may have originated from this situation as thal is the Phoenician term for moisture. According to the later historian Diogenes Laërtius, in his third century AD Lives of the Philosophers, quotes Herodotus, Duris, and Democritus, all of whom agree that "Thales was the son of Examyas and Cleobulina, and belongs to the Phoenician Thelidae. Their titles are the Carian and Greek tribal, respectively. Diogenes then notes that "Most authors, however, portray him as a native of Miletus and of a respectable family. However, his supposed mother Cleobulina was also identified as his companion. Diogenes then provides further contradictory reports: one that Thales married and either fathered a son or adopted a nephew of the same name; the other that he never married, saying his mother as you. Plutarch had mentioned this storey earlier: Solon visited Thales and asked him why he stayed single; Thales said he didn't like the thought of having to think about kids. Nevertheless he adopted his nephew Cybisthus many years later, desperate for love. He has been said to be approximately the technical counterpart of a typical option trader. It is thought that Thales visited Egypt at one point in his career, where he studied geometry. Diogenes Laërtius wrote that Thales described the Milesian colonists as Athenian. A novel, with various versions, relates how Thales, through weather forecast, received riches from an olive harvest. In one storey, after forecasting the weather and a good harvest for a given year, he bought all the olive presses in Miletus. Another version of the storey has been clarified by Aristotle that Thales had rented presses at a discount in advance and could rent them out at a high price when demand peaked, despite his forecast of an unusually successful harvest. This first version of the storey would be the first historically known possible development and usage, while the second version would be the first historically documented choice development and use.
  • test
    Published 2 months ago
    Themistius

    Themistius

    The eloquent Euphrades nicknamed Themistius was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher. He flourished in the reigns of Constance II, Julian, Jovian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius I; and he enjoyed the respect, despite their numerous differences, of all those emperors, and the fact that he was not a Christian. In 355 Constantius submitted himself to the senate, and in 384 he became prefect of Constantinople on the election of Theodosius. Of his numerous works, thirty-three orations, as well as various observations and epitomes of Aristotle's works have come down to us. He was born and taught at Phasis, Paphlagonia. Apart from a brief period in Italy, he lived the remainder of his time in Constantinople. He was the son of Eugene, who was also a distinguished philosopher, and is mentioned in Themistius's prayers more than once. Themistius was trained in philosophy by his father, and he dedicated himself primarily to Aristotle, though he also studied Pythagoreanism and Platonism. Although still a young adult he wrote observations on Aristotle, which were made public without his permission, which earned a high respect for him. He had passed through his childhood in Asia Minor and Syria. He first encountered Constance II when, in the eleventh year of his reign, 347, the emperor visited Ancyra in Galatia, on which time Themistius gave the first of his surviving orations, Peri Philanthropias. He moved to Constantinople not long after, where he taught philosophy for twenty years. He was elected a senator in 355; and the letter persists, in which Constantius introduces him to the Senate and speaks both of Themistius himself and of his father in the best possible words. We do have the prayer of gratitude that Themistius presented to the Constantinople Senate in response to the letter of the emperor early in 356. In 357, in Constantinople's senate, he recited two prayers in memory of Constance, supposed to be delivered to the emperor himself, who was then in Rome. Constantius granted him the privilege of a bronze statue as a reward; and by a decree that still remained, he was promoted to the praetorian rank in 361. Themistius may have served as Constantinople's proconsul in 358–359; he was the last to hold that office, until the title was promoted to urban prefect status. Constantius died in 361; but Themistius undoubtedly maintained the favour, as a scholar and non-Christian, of Julian, who spoke of him as the world's best senator, and the first scholar of his day. The Suda notes that Julian declared Constantinople's Themistius prefect; but this is disproved by Themistius 'speech when he was finally assigned to that office under Theodosius. Shortly before Julian's death in 363, in a letter to Themistius, Themistius delivered a prayer in his memory that no longer remains but is alluded to at some length by Libanius. In 364 he went to meet Jovian at Dadastana, on the frontier of Galatia and Bithynia, as one of the Senate Members, and to grant upon him the Consulate; and on this occasion he gave a prayer which he subsequently reiterated at Constantinople, in which he asserts absolute freedom of faith to follow every religion. In the same year, in the presence of the latter, he gave an oration in Constantinople in memory of Valentinian I and Valens 'accession. His next prayer is addressed to Valens, congratulating him on his June 366 triumph over Procopius, and interceding for some of the rebels; it was delivered in 367. In the next year, in the second campaign of the Gothic War, he followed Valens to the Danube and gave a congratulatory oration on his Quinquennalia, 368, before the emperor at Marcianopolis. His next prayers are to the young Valentinian II on his consulship, 369, and to the Constantinople Council, in the presence of Valens, in memory of the Goths 'unity, 370. On March 28, 373, on the tenth year of his rule, he delivered a congratulatory letter to Valens on the arrival of the Emperor. It was also during Valens 'time in Syria that Themistius delivered an oration to him persuading him to end his persecution of the Catholic community.
  • test
    Published 2 months ago
    Theodorus the Atheist

    Theodorus the Atheist

    Theodorus the Atheist, of Cyrene, was a Cyrenaic school philosopher and one of the well-known philosophers of the ancient time. He lived in Alexandria and Greece before finishing his days in his native Cyrene region. As a Cyrenaic philosopher, he taught that the aim of life was to achieve happiness and escape sorrow, and that wisdom resulted in the former as well as ignorance in the latter. Yet his supposed conservatism was his primary claim to fame. He was generally called the atheist by ancient scholars. Theodorus was a pupil of Aristippus the Younger, the elder's brother and Aristippus, who was more celebrated. He saw a number of philosophers 'lectures beside Aristippus; including Anniceris, and Dionysius the dialectician, Zeno of Citium, and Pyrrho. He was banished from Cyrene, but for what cause it is not stated; and it is from his saying recorded on this occasion, "Men of Cyrene, you do ill in banishing me from Libya to Greece, as well as from being a disciple of Aristippus, that it is inferred that he was a native of Cyrene. There is no related account of his subsequent history; but his anecdotes indicate that he was in Athens. Nevertheless, Demetrius Phalereus 'influence allegedly protected him; and this event will thus possibly be located at Athens, 317–307 BC, within the ten years of Demetrius' rule. Since Theodorus was exiled from Athens and was later in Ptolemy's service in Egypt, it is not unlikely that he joined Demetrius's overthrow and exile. The account cited by Diogenes Laërtius of Amphicrates of Athens, that he was condemned to drink hemlock and so died, is beyond doubt a error. While at Ptolemy's command, Theodorus was sent to Lysimachus on an ambassador, whom he insulted by the expression of his remarks. Several ancient authors praised one reaction he made to a crucifixion challenge that Lysimachus had used. He evidently returned from the Lysimachus court or camp to that of Ptolemy. We also read about his visit to Corinth with a number of his followers, but during his stay in Athens this was probably just a brief visit. He long returned to Cyrene, and stayed there, says Diogenes Laërtius, with Ptolemy's stepson Magas, who ruled Cyrene as viceroy for fifty years, then as king. Theodorus's days at Cyrene presumably ended. Various characteristic anecdotes of Theodorus are preserved from which he appears to have been a man of keen and ready wit. Theodorus was the founder of a church, called Theodoreans after him. Theodorus 'views, as can be learned from Diogenes Laërtius' perplexed comment, were of the Cyrenaic school. He explained that the true end of human life is to attain happiness and escape sorrow, and that wisdom is the former, and ignorance is the latter. He has described the good as prudence and fairness, and the bad as the opposite. Pleasure and pain were nevertheless oblivious. He made fun of friendship and loyalty, and said his country was the universe. He taught that nothing in stealing, treason, or sacrilege was necessarily disgraceful if one defied public opinion, which had been established by fools 'permission. They blamed Theodorus for atheism. He has excluded all views supporting the gods, Laërtius claims, but some opponents question that he was an atheist or merely denying the existence of common religion deities. The accusation of atheism is backed by Atheus 'popular classification, by the authority of Cicero, Laërtius, Pseudo-Plutarch, Sextus Empiricus, and some Christian writers; although others talk of him as denying traditional theology alone. He wrote other works on his sect's teachings as well as on other topics according to the Suda.
  • test
    Published 2 months ago
    Theon of Smyrna

    Theon of Smyrna

    Theon of Smyrna was a Greek mathematician and philosopher whose works were highly influenced by the Pythagorean school of thought. His surviving On Mathematics Useful to Plato's Interpretation is an introductory Greek mathematics study. About Theon about Smyrna's life, little is learned. A bust made at his death, and dedicated by his friend, was discovered in Smyrna, and it dates to about 135 CE by art historians. Ptolemy refers to a Theon, who made discoveries at Alexandria, many times in his Almagest, although it is unclear if he refers to Theon of Smyrna. For him the lunar impact crater is called Theon Senior. Theon has written many articles on the works of the mathematicians and thinkers of the period, including studies on Plato's theory. Any of these plays go missing. The one big survivor is Plato's On Mathematics Helpful to Grasp. A second dissertation has recently been found in an Arabic translation on the order in which to read Plato's works. His On Mathematics Useful to Plato's Learning is not a commentary on Plato's works but instead a practical textbook for a mathematics undergraduate. It is not so much a ground-breaking work as a compilation piece to already existing theories at the moment. Its position as a collection of information already known and its comprehensive citation of earlier sources is part of what makes it worthwhile. The first section of this work is divided into two sections, the first of which concerns the topics of numbers and the second of which is about music and harmony. The first part, on mathematics, focuses more on what is more widely known today as number theory: odd numbers, even numbers, prime numbers, ideal numbers, abundant numbers, and other similar properties. This includes a 'side and diameter numbers' list, the Pythagorean process for a series of possible rational approximations to the square root of 2, whose denominators are Pell numbers. It is also one of the roots of our information about the origins of the Doubling the cube classical problem. The second segment, on music, is divided into three parts: numeral music, instrumental music, and spheres music. Number music is a study of mood and harmony using averages, proportions, and means; the instrumental music sections are concerned not with rhythm but with intervals and consonances in the manner of the work of Pythagoras. Theon defines intervals by the degree of their consonance: that is, by the consistency of their relations. He speaks of them even by their isolation from each other. The third section, he considered the most significant on the music of the cosmos, and ordered it to come after the appropriate context provided in the earlier sections. Theon cites a poem by Alexander of Ephesus that assigns different pitches to each planet in the chromatic scale, an concept that would maintain its influence for a millennium later. The second is about astronomy. The content of the work, however, prompted Otto Neugebauer to blame him for not thoroughly recognising the material which he was attempting to address. Theon was a brilliant harmony philosopher and his treatise deals with semitones. There are many semitones used in Greek music but two are very typical in this type. Pythagoreans in those days did not depend on irrational numbers to grasp harmonies and the logarithm for these semitones did not suit their theory. Their logarithms did not result in irrational numbers, but Theon was going into this debate. He agreed that "one should show that" it is not possible to split the tone of value 9/8 into equal parts and hence it is a number itself. Many Pythagoreans acknowledged that irrational numbers existed, but did not believe in using them because they were unnatural and not positive integer numbers.