Different Types Of Engines Based On Design, Fuel, And Number Of Cycles
What are some of the types of engines?
Different Types Of Engines
Here in this article, we will study diverse types of engines. The sorting of the engines hinges on upon the forms of fuel used, the cycle of the process, number of strokes, type of ignition, number of cylinders, the arrangement of cylinders, valve organization, types of cooling, etc. these engines are used in different zones such as in automotive industries, aircraft industries, marine industries, etc. according to their fitness they are cast-off in different areas. So let’s debate about different engine types one by one.
Types of Engine:
An engine can be plow into a category according to two standards: the form of energy it accepts in order to generate motion, and the sort of motion it yields.
A heat engine normally habits energy provided in the form of heat to do work and then exhausts the heat which cannot be used to do work. Thermodynamics is the study of the interactions between heat and work.
A heat engine is a structure that changes heat or thermal energy and chemical energy to mechanical energy, which can then be castoff to do mechanical work. It does this work by carrying a working material from an upper state temperature to a lower state temperature.
A heat source produces thermal energy that carries the working material to the high-temperature state. The working material makes work in the working body of the engine while transporting heat to the colder sink until it ranges a low-temperature state. During this procedure, some of the thermal energy is transformed into work by misusing the properties of the working material. The working material can be any system with non-zero heat capacity, but it typically is a gas or liquid. During this procedure, a lot of heat is vanished to the environment and so cannot be transformed to work.
"Combustion" raises to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to produce the heat. Combustion engines are heat engines driven by the heat of a combustion course. And they are of two types which we’ll discuss now.
- Internal combustion engine:
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the burning of fuel happens with an oxidizer in a fire chamber. In an internal combustion engine the spreading out or expansion of the high temperature and high-pressure gases, which are manufactured by the combustion, directly smears force to mechanisms of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades or a nozzle, and by moving it over a distance, produces mechanical work.
- External combustion engine
An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where an inner working liquid is heated by the combustion of an exterior source, through a heat exchanger. The liquid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine crops motion and practical work. The liquid is then cooled, flattened/compressed and reused or maybe deserted, and cool fluid pulled in.
There are diverse types of internal combustion (I.C.) engine and their organization depends upon the following basis.
1. Types of Engines based on Design:
(i) Reciprocating engine:
In the reciprocating engine, there is a piston and cylinder, the piston does a to and Fro motion inside the cylinder. Due to this motion of the piston, it is called a reciprocating engine. 2 stroke and four-stroke engines are common examples of this type of engine.
(ii) Rotary engine:
In a rotary engine, the rotor does a rotary motion to generate power. There is no to and fro motion. A rotor is present in the space which does rotary motion inside a chamber. The Wankel rotary engine, turbine engines are examples of these types of engines.
2. Types of Engines based on Kinds of Fuel Used:
On the base of kinds of fuel used, the engine is categorized as a petrol engine, diesel engine, and a gas engine.
(i). Petrol engine:
The engine which uses petrol for its working is called a petrol engine.
In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are typically mixed after compression. The pre-mixing was previously done in a carburetor, but now it is done by automatically controlled fuel injection, excluding small engines where the cost/impediment of electronics does not validate the added engine effectiveness.
(ii). Diesel engine:
The engine which uses diesel for its working is called a diesel engine.
Diesel engines effort by compressing only the air. This upsurges the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomized Diesel fuel vaccinated into the burning chamber flare-up impulsively.
(iii). Gas engine:
An engine using gas fuel for the working is called a gas engine.
A gas engine is an internal combustion engine which uses a gas fuel, such as coal gas, creator gas, biogas, landfill gas, or natural gas. Generally, the term gas engine mentions to a heavy-duty industrial engine proficient of running uninterruptedly at full load for ages imminent a high fraction of 8,760 hours per year, dissimilar a gasoline automobile engine, which is light-weight, and normally for no more than 4,000 hours in its whole life.
3. Types of engines based on Cycle of Operation
On the foundation of the cycle of operation the engine categories are:
(i). Otto cycle engine:
These sorts of engine work on the Otto cycle.
An Otto cycle is a flawless thermodynamic cycle that labels the working of a distinctive spark ignition piston engine. It is the thermodynamic cycle most normally originate in automobile engines.
The Otto cycle is an account of what occurs to a form of gas as it is exposed to variations of pressure, temperature, volume, the addition of heat, and elimination of heat. The form of gas that is exposed to those changes is called the ‘’system’’.
The Otto cycle is constructed from:
- A pair of quasi-parallel and isentropic procedures (frictionless, adiabatic reversible).
- A pair of similar isochoric courses (constant volume).
The Otto cycle contains isentropic compression, heat adding at constant volume, isentropic expansion, and the refusal of heat at persistent volume.
(ii). Diesel cycle engine:
The engine employed on diesel sequence is called a diesel cycle engine.
The Diesel cycle is a burning process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine. In this type, fuel is burnt by heat produced during the compression of air in the burning chamber, into which fuel is then inoculated.
There are just four discrete procedures:
1→2: isentropic compression of the fluid
2→3: reversible persistent/constant pressure warming
3→4: isentropic expansion
4→1: reversible persistent volume chilling/cooling
(iii). semi-diesel cycle engine:
The engine that mechanisms on both diesel as well as Otto cycle are called dual cycle engine or semi-diesel cycle engine.
4. Types of engines based on the number of Strokes
On the foundation of the amount of stroke, the kinds of the engine are:
(i). Four Stroke Engine:
It is an engine in which the piston travels four times. 2 upward and 2 downward drive in one cycle of the power stroke is called four-stroke engines.
- Intake: Also recognized as suction. This blow of the piston instigates at the top dead center (T.D.C.) and trimmings at the lowest/bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this blow, the consumption valve must be in the open location while the piston jerks an air-fuel mixture into the tube by creating vacuum weight into the cylinder through its descending motion. The piston is touching down as air is being drunk in by the descending motion in contradiction of the piston.
- Compression: This stroke instigates at B.D.C, or just at the close of the suction stroke, and finishes at T.D.C. In this stroke, the piston wads the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below). Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage.
- Combustion: Also known as power or ignition. This is the start of the second rebellion of the four-stroke cycle. At this fact, the crankshaft has completed a full 360-degree revolt. While the piston is at T.D.C. the packed down air-fuel mixture is burnt by a spark plug (in a gasoline engine) or by heat produced by high compression (diesel engines), convincingly returning the piston to B.D.C. This stroke crops mechanical work from the engine to crack the crankshaft.
- Exhaust: Also known as an exit. During the exhaust stroke, the piston, once again, revenues from B.D.C. to T.D.C. while the dissipate valve is open. This action ousts the consumed air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve.
(ii). Two Stroke Engine:
The engine in which the piston does two times motion. one from TDC to BDC and other from BDC to TDC to harvest a power stroke is called two-stroke engines.
A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a kind of internal combustion engine which finishes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston throughout only one crankshaft revolt. This is indifference to a "four-stroke engine", which needs four strokes of the piston to whole a power cycle during two crankshaft revolts. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the burning stroke and the start of the density stroke happen concurrently, with the intake and scavenging purposes happening at the same time.
(iii). Hot spot ignition engine:
This kind of engine is not in real-world usage.
5. Types of Engines based on Ignition
On the basis of ignition, the engines are classified as:
(i). Spark ignition engine (S.I. engine):
In the spark-ignition engine there is a spark plug that is tailored at the engine pate. The spark plug crops spark after the firmness of the fuel and burns the air-fuel mixture for the burning. The petrol engines are a spark-ignition engine.
(ii). Compression ignition engine (C.I. engine):
In a compression ignition engine, there is no spark plug at the cylinder pate. The fuel is burnt by the warmth of the compressed air. The diesel engines are compression ignition engine.
6. Types of Engines based on the number of Cylinders
On the basis of a number of cylinders present in the engine, the types of engine are:
(i). Single-cylinder engine:
An engine that contains a single cylinder is called a single-cylinder engine. Usually, the single-cylinder engines are cast-off in motorcycles, etc.
(ii). Double cylinder engine:
The engine which contains two cylinders is called a double cylinder engine.
(iii). Multi-cylinder engine:
An engine that consists of above two cylinders is called a multi-cylinder engine. The multi-cylinder engine might have three, four, six, eight, twelve. and sixteen cylinders.
7. Types of Engines based on Arrangement of Cylinders
On the foundation of the arrangement of cylinders, the engines organization is:
(i). Vertical engine:
In vertical engines, the tubes are arranged in a perpendicular position.
(ii). Horizontal engine:
In horizontal engines, the cylinders are positioned in a parallel manner.
(iii). Radial engine:
The radial engine is a reciprocating kind internal combustion engine formation in which the tubes emit outer from a central crankcase like the rods of a wheel. When it is observed from the front, it looks like a stylized star and is called a ‘star’ engine. Before the gas turbine engine does not develop predominantly, it is usually used for airplane engines.
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