A unipolar order in the international world can be described as an allotment of power in which one state, the superpower, exercises its influence in terms of culture, economy, and military. It illustrates the nature of the global system at any given time. In the unipolar order, the superpower or the leader state normally dictates the internal politics and the communal character of the sub-ordinate states that are parts of the hegemonic subject of influence.
The United States of America is the sole global hegemon. The USA rose to be the world solo superpower after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. This was after the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the USA. The Soviet Union, however, broke down with member states pulling out of the union; this left Russia, the dominant country in the Soviet Union, solo. Furthermore, it led to the rise of the USA as the superpower. This meant that the USA had the best military and economic power. Today, the US dollar still remains the most valued currency in the global system. It also influences or dominates other countries’ politics and affairs; for example, it invaded Iraq due to their nuclear program. It has also enhanced sanctions on countries such as Iran and North Korea due to their nuclear programs. Most have argued that the USA, due to their influence in the world, has brought peace in the unipolar system and has also helped in the shaping of hegemonic stability.
The United States’ dominance as the sole global hegemon is diminishing. By the year 2035, there will be a multipolar global system. Countries such as China, Indonesia, South Korea, Russia, India, and Brazil are accounting for global growth. Thus, there will be three zones dominating the international world. They are the US, the Euro zone, and China. I have pointed China as a zone due to their rising economy in Asia and influence on other countries especially in Africa. China is also the only country that was not in recession from the year 2008. It is thus a considerable economic and political power. Countries such as Brazil, India, and Turkey have their own foreign policy preferences. This has made it hard for the USA to exercise its ability to shape the world. Russia is also resurging. These states will rise to challenge the US dominance in the international order. This was evident when the US had a financial crisis; we also see these countries challenging the US in the United Nations’ forums e.g. Brazil and Turkey voted against America regarding the sanctions on Iran.
The rise of other countries such as China, Russia, and Brazil in the inter-polar world has been shaped by various factors such as large populations of Brazil and China. This adds weight to the global economy and increases global trade. We have countries with large populations such as Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Turkey, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Egypt making a global growth that is slowly increasing. Another factor is economic ability. China, for example, has a rising economy. In the year 2008, it was the only country that was not in recession. The USA at that time had been facing a financial crisis that led to the global financial crisis with the exception of China. Military power is another factor. A country whose economy is stable and dominant has a strong military, for example, what the US spends on defense or military is close to half of global military expenditures. Besides, nuclear power is also important. Although its expenditure on defense is 80 per cent of the total defense expenditure of China, China grows into an economic power as well as its military power. We also have countries such as Russia whose military expenditure is increasing too. Countries like Iran and North Korea are also developing nuclear powers thus challenging the USA. We also have environmental factors shaping the rise of other powers; for example, India and Brazil ganged up together with China against the US at the global climate change talks. This influences their rise in a multipolar system. The society is also shaping the rise of other powers. This is in terms of societal problems faced, for example, terrorism, poverty, energy scarcity, and climate change. The US is facing a crisis in terms of terrorism; it spends more on the fight against terrorism unlike countries such as China.
The rise of these countries in a multipolar future global system has a significant implication on the international system. The implication is that international decisions will be made for tactical reasons that will sustain a balance of power. In conclusion, multipolarity promotes interdependence unlike a unipolar order where the developing countries rely on the developed ones. It also creates a global balance of power.
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