Rome was once bigger than Italy | Part 2
Since that time of high school, we have probably heard of the Roman Empire and Roman civilization. So where does Rome start?
Caesar was initially been from a wealthy aristocratic family and belonged to the Populares faction (which protects the interests of civilians) so was hated by the Optimates faction (the conservative wing, the protection of the benefits of the nobility). Realizing that Caesar was a danger to his power, Pompey and the nobles plotted to deprive Caesar of their troops and properties and banish Caesar. The reason the aristocracy could execute Caesar was that during his time as Consul before being sent to guard northern Italy, Caesar abused his power and broke many of the rules of the Yuan Institute. According to Roman law at the time, a person after being Consul would be sent to stay in another province for a term of at least one year, and as long as a public official was not tried tội. So Caesar tried to avoid returning to Rome as a commoner and extended his term of governor 😜. During that time, Caesar also expanded Roman territory by continuing to conquer and end up capturing the whole of Gaul (generally France now) and even bringing troops to England.
Predicting the plot of Pompey and the aristocracy, returning from victory in Gaul, instead of disbanding the army outside the city, Caesar headed straight to Rome. The fight between Caesar and Pompey's side lasted for a long time, with Caesar on the winning team. When Caesar took control, Caesar began to carry out many reforms. The story of Caesar is incomplete, but perhaps Caesar is so famous in history not only for being an excellent general but also a quite extraordinary personality. Caesar's leadership style has many dictatorial traits, but I think it is not for personal gain. Caesar's reforms include the allocation of land to the poor, the retirement regime for veterans (because most of these men after being discharged are empty and have no way to live), and reforms Roman calendar into Julian calendar to help calculate the agricultural season easier. July in Julian Calendar is named after Caesar: Julius. This calendar is very similar to the Gregorian calendar we use now.
Caesar's political orientation certainly did not please the Optimates nobility. On Ides of March, March 15, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of Yuan Yuan academicians. This event was depicted dramatically in Shakespeare's play over 1600 years later.
After Caesar's death, Caesar's comrade and right-hand man, Marcus Antonius (commonly known as Mark Antony) came to power in Rome with Octavius and Lepidus. Lepidus is also a close friend and general of Caesar, while Octavius is Caesar's adopted son and heir. These three people joined together into the second Roman power trio (second triumvirate). They divided Rome into three parts to rule, but for about eight years, Lepidus was forced to retire after betraying Octavius in Sicily. Octavius and Antony conflict, mainly due to Antony's relationship with Cleopatra. The two sides declare war on each other, and the winner is Octavius. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Octavious captured Egypt, ushering in a new Roman era: the Roman Empire period.
In 27 BC, Octavius took the name Augustus. This is the landmark historians use as the starting point of the empire (replacing the former republic). Octavius also called himself "imperator", meaning "commander", a title that soldiers often used to praise their generals when winning battles. The word Emperor in English is derived from this word.
With Under Augustus, Rome prospered and the next 200 years were called the Pax Romana period (Roman peace period). Peace for Rome alone, but the countries bordering the territory of the Roman empire continue to be annexed. In the following article, I will talk about several Roman emperors, why Rome grew and why the empire collapsed and the effects of Roman culture on the world as we know it today.