Rome was once bigger than Italy
Since that time of high school, we have probably heard of the Roman Empire and Roman civilization. So where does Rome start?
According to legend, in the 8th century BC, Rhea Silvia - Princess of Alba Longa gave birth to two twin boys, Romulus and Remus. Rhea Silvia's uncle Amulius - who had usurped her father's throne - feared that the two children would be a threat to their throne, so ordered the two children to flee the river. The servants, who loved the two children, placed them only on the banks of the Tiber River, at the foot of the Palatine hill. Romulus and Remus were picked up by a wolf until a shepherd found them and took the two brothers to their pregnancies.
As adults, Romulus and Remus stumbled upon their origins. They return to their homeland, kill Amulius and return their grandfather to the throne. Then the two brothers wanted to find new land to establish a kingdom of their own. They returned to the hill by the Tiber River where the wolf had found them. Due to conflicts over the central location for the new city, Romulus killed Remus in a fit of temper. In other versions of the story, Remus is killed in a duel or by Romulus supporters.
Also, according to legend, the father of Romulus and Remus is none other than Mars - the God of wars in Roman mythology 😛. In short, this story is just a legend, so you should read it for fun, but nobody knows what history is. Just remember that Romulus created a kingdom on the Tiber River with the centre of the Palatine hill and named the country after Rome.
From 753 to 509 BC, Rome was a kingdom and spent seven kings. Although from the outset, Romulus established a Senate Institute that consisted of representatives from typical families in the city, Yuan Yuan Institute only had an advisory role, and the power remained with the king. The last king of this period was a tyrant, and after his son raped a noble girl, the Yuan Yuan Institute could not let him go wild. This king was overthrown, and Rome became a Republic.
The government apparatus of the Republic of Rome was quite complex and very progressive compared to that time because it was divided into isolated powers. The primary control belongs to the Yuan Institute, and the two heads are called Consuls (consuls are elected every year). The Latin name of the Roman Republic is Senātus Populusque Rōmānus, abbreviated as SPQR (The Senate and People of Rome - Institute of Aging and People of Rome). Until now, you still see the word SPQR in many ancient buildings.
Under the republic, Rome flourished and gradually took over the Italian peninsula. In 146 BC, Rome became the most powerful country in the Mediterranean Sea, with a territory covering many strips of land on the Mediterranean coast, including part of the Iberian Peninsula, part of the Balkan Peninsula, and large islands. Such as Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and the city of Carthage in North Africa (now in the territory of Tunisia). Carthage before it was a mighty empire also defeated by Rome. The Romans began to call the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum, meaning "our sea". It was not until later that the Mediterranean got its present name, Mediterraneum.
In the first century BC, the Roman republic began to collapse by the concentration of power on several individuals. The fact that the Roman army was more loyal to their generals than to the government made excellent generals like Marius or Sulla, in fact, Roman rulers. After these two characters, there was Crassus (who suppressed the rebellion of Spartacus) and Pompey, a general who was successful in conquering the Middle East.
Although very successful in terms of military and territorial expansion, the internal situation of Rome was very chaotic. In 60 BC, a powerful trio of stars was born: Crassus, Pompey and the one we all know - Julius Caesar.
In 54 BC, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife died at childbirth, which caused the already fragile relationship between Caesar and Pompey to break. In 53 BC, Crassus died in Parthia (now northeastern Iran), and the power trio disintegrated. Pompey and Caesar became rivals.