Topshop is a British retail multinational retailer that offers clothes, shoes, beauty, and accessories. It has about 500 shops worldwide, of which around 300 are in the UK – plus online operations in many of its markets. The current CEO is Ian Grabiner and is part of the Arcadia Group, which is under the leadership of Sir Philip Green. In the 1960s, Topshop began as a brand extension of the department store of Peter Robinson, and initially sold clothes by young British designers including Mary Quant and Stirling Cooper. Peter Robinson was a female apparel chain, purchased by Burton in 1946. Topshop was founded in 1964 as Peter Robinson's Top Shop, a youth store within the Sheffield area, which then had a large department in the Oxford Street shop. It was high fashion for the "new and special generation," as The Times called it in 1965, and the store stocked clothing with people like Mary Quant and Gerald McCann. In 1966 the firm had a store in the Peter Robinson Supermarket in Norwich. In 1973, the parent company of the Burton Group initiated a major expansion of its womenswear market, splitting the Top Shop of Peter Robinson into two shops to be known as Peter Robinson and Top Shop. While Peter Robinson will reach the audience of over 25s, it has been announced that Top Shop will focus on the age group from 13 to 24 years old with Ralph Halpern overseeing the new business. By 1974, Peter Robinson was the one from 22 to six outlets, while Top Shop was rising independently and described as "highly competitive." Miss Selfridge and Harrods ' Way In luxury division were among the biggest competitors in retail. In the space of two years, the Top Shop had 55 independent shops, with more to come out according to a The Times article. It was identified as having a: "clear sense of purpose" by fashion editor Prudence Glynn. That year, it made £ 1 m of profits. Top Shop accounted for a majority of Burton's net sales in 1978. In 2015 Topshop began to work with online retailer Zalando and started offering their products in their shops. Commercials using the Cara Delevingne pattern have been demonstrated in Germany, Switzerland and France. Topshop was a significant sponsor of London Fashion Week under her leadership, endorsing the 2002 Newgen arm that supports young British designers, and a year later the Fashion East initiative that acts as a bridge between London's luxury colleges and the Newgen scheme. This funding is continuing, and has been part of the catwalk programme for the London Fashion Week since 2005. As of 2012, it is part-owned by a US-based private equity firm. Topshop has over 510 stores and others that are franchised; there are more than 300 stores in the UK. It operates across 37 countries and through internet operations in a number of markets. Topshop began preparing its relocation to the United States in the mid-2000s, and was scheduled to land in New York as early as 2007. This also takes place on a web site that purchases in Nordstrom's stores. The major cities had a small range of private-run shops. On 5 November 2014, it opened a flagship store in New York City, located at Fifth Avenue. The shop was the largest international venue, and second only to the Oxford Lane square footage shop, London. This is their second store in New York City, which opened first on Broadway in 2009. On 23 May 2019, Arcadia filed a Chapter 15 bankruptcy in the United States and announced that its 11 freestanding top-shop stores will be liquidated and sold in the coming months; however, Topshop will continue to sell its products exclusively at Nordstrom locations. Topshop announced a five-year plan to grow internationally in early 2011, with the goal of opening new stores in Asia, Australia and the US as well as seeking markets in Europe. Although Japanese flagship stores opened in 2006, in 2015 all 5 Japanese shops shut down. In 2013, the parent company Arcadia started stepping up its franchise agreements by announcing a planned 150 new store openings with partners in Canada, Australia and Vietnam, including Topshop and Topman outlets.