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Berlepsch's tinamou (Crypturellus berlepschi) is a ground bird species found in the dense forests of northwest Colombia and northwest Ecuador. All tinamou are from the tribe of Tinamidae and are also ratites in the broader scheme. Unlike other ratites, tinamous can float but in general they are not good fliers. All ratites originated from ancient flying birds and tinamous are the nearest living relative to these birds. The genus up to the mid-20th century was considered a sub-species of the cinereous tinamou. And due to its bill height, the combination of its toe to tarsus length and the fact that its plumage displays significant variations from that of the cinereous tinamou created enough of an problem to be named for the new genus. Crypturellus consists of three words, either Latin, or Greek. Kruptos meaning concealed or obscured, oura meaning mouth, and ellus meaning diminutive. Often, Crypturellus means tiny hidden tail. In commemoration of the German ornithologist and collector Hans von Berlepschi Berlepschi comes from Berlepsch in latin type. Berlepsch's tinamou is a medium-sized pigeon with a height of 29.6–32 centimetres, the male weighing 430–537 grammes and the female weighing 512–615 grammes. The plumage of this bird varies somewhat; however, certain features may be quantified, such as the colour being usually a brownish black to a deep soothy white. Sometimes the head and neck look darker than the rest of the body, with a reddish tinge to the crown and nape. The legs and feet are purple, with an upper mandible in black and a lower mandible in rosy on the bill. His bill is longer than the cinereous tinamou, and narrower. The iris, at last, is gold. The juvenile appearance of the bird is similar in colouring to the adult; but it has barring on its sub-parts and also on its wings, with a cinnamon tinge. The range extends north of Ecuador's far northern coast to the Colombian coast as far north as the Bahia de Capica National Park. This tinamou occurs in lowland dense forest in subtropical to tropical areas, and can also tend to live in a mature secondary forest. It has also shown that they can survive in logged forests. It can prefer up to 500 metres of coastal lowlands and hills in Colombia but it has been recorded to be as high as 900 metres. The Berlepsch tinamou is considered to be a sedentary insect. There is no species-specific knowledge of Berlepsch's tinamou, but scientists believe that, like other members of Crypturellus, his diet focuses on fleshy berries, which he prefers to consume from the ground, but can pick from lower branches that remain. The Berlepsch, like other tinamous humans, also eats small numbers of invertebrates, flowering buds, delicate berries, seeds, and roots. Being a woodland species, they would like the months of ample food and this would mean the season. Like other tinamou, the male incubates the eggs that can come from as many as four different females, and then holds them up until they can be autonomous, typically 2–3 weeks. The nest is on the ground in dense scrub, between elevated root buttresses. The IUCN classifies the Berlepshch tinamou as the Least Concern, and it has a range of 60,000 km2 of occurrence. The red-legged and all-dark Berlepsch's Tinamou is limited to extreme northwest South America, where it is found from northwest Colombia south to northwest Ecuador, and is thus endemic to the Chocó Region of Endemism. This species has formerly been classified as a well-marked subspecies of the Amazonian Cinereous Tinamou. It is heavily inhabited by tropical forest, often below 600 m. Berlepsch's Tinamou is generally believed to be fairly common, particularly in Colombia, but it is heard much more often than seen as other tinamous; hence almost nothing is known about this species ' biology.
The barred tinamou (Crypturellus nearquiare) is a tinamou species usually found in humid lowland forests in subtropical and tropical northern regions of South America. This is a genus of monotypical origin. Both tinamou are from the family Tinamidae, and even ratites are found in the larger scheme. Unlike other ratites, tinamous can float but in general they are not good fliers. Both ratites evolved from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest surviving descendants of such birds. The barred tinamou is around 25 cm in height. This is a yellowish-buff with solid black bars at the rear, white at the arms, light blue at the front and neck and breast sides. The belly is orange, the flanks are black-barred cream, with olive-green chestnut coloured bones in the head and neck. The girl in the back is paler. The barred tinamou eats fruit like other tinamous, or low-lying trees from the forest. They also eat small quantities of invertebrates, blossoms, delicate herbs, seeds, and roots. The male incubates the eggs which can come from as many as four different females, and then holds them up until they can be autonomous, normally 2–3 weeks. The nest is on the ground in dense scrub, between raised root buttresses. In the district of Loreto, the Barred Tinamou is rare and poorly known in its restricted range. This is mostly confined to soil from nutrient-poor sandy forest. The Barred Tinamou has a rufous muzzle and a whitish-neck. With much of the body barred, the neck and underparts are white with dusky, and dark. It's similar to Variegated Tinamou but is unique because it doesn't have a dusky head, white breast and underparts. The Barred Tinamou, Crypturellus nearquiare, is only one of the forty seven species found in South and Central America that make up the Tinamou family of birds. The Barred Tinamou is found in north South America, particularly in the extreme southern regions of eastern Colombia and southern Venezuela. Compared to other Tinamou tribes, the population of the Barred Tinamou is comparatively tiny. The presumption has certainly meant no subspecies of birds. The Barred Tinamou range is comparatively small, offering open spaces in tropical and subtropical forest areas along the Orinoco and Rio Negro basins as well as nearby. The Barred Tinamou may then feed on fruits, nuts, invertebrates, and plants. The Barred Tinamou is a largely identified species, and this has meant that there are no accurate figures of how many exist in the wild, although the species is listed as being of Least Concern. However, the rating of the Least Concern comes about as species are not deemed to be seriously declining nor is there any excessive depletion of biodiversity. Of example some of the Barred Tinamou knowledge is known. The Barred Tinamou is typically 23 cm to 25 cm long and relatively storied in terms of size. The Barred Tinamou is mainly yellow-buff in colour, with wide black bars on the back (hence their name). The belly of the bird is white, while the breast area is light brown. The head and neck area is marked with chestnut while the throat is grey. The Barred Tinamou is believed to act in similar fashion to other Tinamou observed during the mating season in South America. It's the male sex that builds the nest in a fall in the forest. The male would then attract multiple different females, all of whom lay eggs in the nest, indicating that there could be as many as twelve eggs in the nest. The females then leave and the male incubates the eggs for 3 to 4 weeks. The male then raises the hatchlings up. The Barred Tinamou is normally a solitary species, and is usually alone when observed, with each bird having its own display. While hearing the Barred Tinamou is better than seeing it, like so many of the South American Tinamou, despite this it remains a feature in sections of Colombia and Venezuela.
The Andean tinamou (Nothoprocta pentlandii) is a tinamou found usually in high altitude shrubland, in the South American Andes. All tinamou are from the tribe of Tinamidae and are also ratites in the broader scheme. Tinamous, like other ratites, can float but in general they are not fast fliers. All ratites originated from ancient flying birds and tinamous are the nearest living relative to these birds. Pentlandii is the Latin version of Pentland commemorating Joseph Barclay Pentland, an Irish adventurer. The Andean tinamou is roughly 27 cm long. The upper parts are greyish-gray to light olive, and barred in black and white. The Andean tinamou is present in the Andes, from southern Ecuador to central Chile, as well as in Argentina's Sierras de Córdoba. It prefers subtropical and coastal shrubland at elevations between 800 and 4,100 m. Classics on IUCN. IUCN's breast is brown and white or cream coloured, its belly is red or white and its crown is purple, its head and chest sides are mottled grey and its legs are yellow. Seven subspecies of Andean Tinamou have been described, ranging from southern Ecuador to Chile and central west Argentina. As the name suggests, this species primarily inhabits montane scrub and grassland, and is also present at the edges of Polylepis forest areas, from 1500 to 4000 m; but there is also a lowland population in western Peru, estimated at 200–900 m. This is not surprising that the plumage of the species is extremely variable considering the number of subspecies known but this tinamou can also be distinguished from the similar yet larger Ornate Tinamou by the appearance of spotting on the breast and head sides. The Andean Tinamou is seen more often as a bird is flushing with noisy wingbeats from a cover base. The birds, normally under bush cover, feed on berries, seeds, onions, beetles, and small onions and nest on the ground. Tinamous are stormy desert birds with very short tails and long wings; they resemble tailless quails superficially. Andean Tinamou is a medium sized steppe tinamou with a gently curved tail, and a narrowly crested head. The plumage is genetically complex but all Andean Tinamous have a streaked pattern on the upper parts and the breast is spotted with white; only the breast is brown in some subspecies. The races are similar. The southern populations of Andean Tinamou in Argentina are rising November-February, and breeding will start as early as September. Further information on their more northerly breeding is available. The Peruvian Andes subspecies oustaleti is on eggs from December to May, with some records of immaturity in June; and Andean Tinamou is expected to increase from December to March in the Andes of southern central Peru, with immaturities frequently reported in April. The nest is a tiny depression on the ground, about 15 cm long and 7 cm deep, full of grass, thin stems and a few feathers, and conc. The eggs are Chocolate deep. Geographic range of Andean Tinamou is very wide. This tinamou is usually very natural and seems to be healthy to the populace. The status of Andean Tinamou in the IUCN Red List is classified as the Least Concern. The Tinamou Andean has a curved leg, and a lighter mandible. Both forms bear a dusky, slender line from behind the ears on the sides of the mouth. The tops have complex black and brown dot patterns, and white lines. The breast on the lower belly is greyish, advancing toward white. It forages from open grasslands with shrubs, and Andean forest, and cultivated areas in diverse types of ecosystems. At higher elevations, that resembles the larger Ornate Tinamou. It is not known that the Curve-billed Tinamou overlaps.
The black tinamou (Tinamus osgoodi) is a species of ground birds found in the coastal foothills and montane forests of the South American Andes. Both tinamous are from the family Tinamidae and are members of the infraclass Palaeognathae. Tinamous are their group's only members who aren't ratites, they can even float, but poorly. All paleognaths originated from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest surviving relative to these birds. This tinamous species was first described by Henry Boardman Conover in 1949, based on a description provided by Cusco in Peru. Enigmatic is still an over-employed adjective but Black Tinamou certainly counts as such. A stony land creature with a short tail and long legs, the black tinamou is. It is comparatively larger than other tinamous and seems to be about 40 to 46 cm long, with females slightly larger than males. A black male tinamou has an average wingspan of around 234 to 248 mm and the average wingspan of a black female tinamou is 239 to 256 mm. While there is no estimate of the overall height of a black tinamou, a male specimen measuring 1.285 g has been examined by the Field Museum of Natural History. As the name suggests, this is mostly slate grey, rather than completely black. The upper parts of an adult black tinamou are a uniform grey while brown is sometimes edged at the mid-section and larger wing coverings. A soothy brown colour is the lower breasts and flanks, as well as the peak. This has a rufescent vent, which may or may not have black speckling depending upon the subspecies. The maxilla is dark in the mandible, with a light brown. The black tinamou has dark brown skin and the feet are blue-gray. A teenage black tinamou is similar in colour, but lined with whitish stripes on the tail. Black tinamou chicks typically have a light brown head with a long, cinnamon-brown line stretching from the crest of their heads to the napes of their necks. We have chins with whitish neckline. The collar, upper back and upper breast is a gritty black. A black tinamou chick's lower back and rump is a dark buff colour, and its lower breast and belly differ between dusky brown and light white. The black tinamou has a tremulous whistle going down which lasts about a second. The whistle sounds like a white-throated tinamou, which bears the same first note as well. There is virtually no comprehension of the actions of the black tinamou, but it is probably similar to that of his kin. The nuts were contained in one research area. The only known nest was on the ground, holding 2 shiny, blue eggs. In Peru, adults in breeding condition were recorded from March to November, and a chick was found in February. For an occurrence size of 11,600 km2, the IUCN lists the black tinamou as Vulnerable. Black Tinamou inhabits thick forests in tropical and subtropical areas and was believed to have been less than 10,000 in 2004. It has previously been known as popular locally in Peru but is now rare in that area. The black tinamou has been recorded in a number of reserves including Megantoni National Sanctuary, Manú National Park and Sira Communal Reserve in Peru, Sumaco Napo-Galeras National Park in Ecuador and Cueva de los Guácharos National Park in Colombia. The black tinamou is endangered by deforestation or habitat loss caused by human settlement production, agricultural expansion, road-building, oil exploration in Peru and food hunts. Degradation of wildlife and habitat happens within parks, too. Maybe surprisingly, despite its apparent rareness, one species nest was found in Peru; it held two eggs, which despite the congener clutch sizes may not have been a complete clutch. Fast little else is known about the life history of Black Tinamou, however.
Black Tinamou is a medium sized forest tinamou that is predominantly found in South America. The species has a remarkably disjunct distribution, with populations in northern South America, in the Andean foothills along the Amazon fringes, in the southern central Amazon Basin, and in the eastern South American Atlantic Forest Region. Brown Tinamou is a terrestrial bird, and it walks slowly on the ground of wet evergreen forests, but their behaviour is not otherwise well known. Brown Tinamou is reclusive as is the case for other forest-inhabiting tinamou species; it is rarely seen but its loud, ringing "soccerr referee whistle" song is sometimes heard. Blue Tinamou is plain reddish brown on the underparts, with dark chocolate tops and a light grey nose. Tinamous are ground birds with long wings and very small tails. Brown Tinamou is a medium size, somewhat unpatterned tinamou. The head and hindneck are fully slate-gray, the upper portions are deep brown chocolate and the underparts are reddish brown or buffy white, with black barring on the flanks. All tinamou are of the family of Tinamidae, and are thus ratites in the broader scheme. Tinamous can float like other ratites, but in general they are not quick fliers. All ratites evolved from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest surviving descendants of such birds. The brown tinamou is superficially similar to a quail, but different in that it belongs with other tinamous in the Paleognathae. It is around 25 to 30 cm tall, and weights from 350 to 550 g. Based on the subspecies involved, the upper parts vary from dark sooty-brown to vivid chestnut, while the underparts, which are usually paler than the upper parts, varies from chestnut to light ochraceous. The subspecies of griseiventris is unique in its bright buff-gray subparts. The greyish throat may distinguish both subspecies from the superficially related little tinamou. Usually, females are larger and rufescenter than males. Little Tinamou is the most similar species to Brown Tinamou. Brown Tinamou occurs mainly at higher elevations along the western edge of the Amazon Basin and in the Atlantic Forest than Little Tinamou, though the two populations may overlap in central South America. Brown is larger than None, with a grey throat on the flanks and more buffer. Black Tinamou's range is strangely disjunct. It occurs in northern Venezuela's coastal ranges, and in western Venezuela's Andes. Black Tinamou also occurs along the eastern slope of the Andes from south Colombia to central Bolivia. The range extends to southwestern Amazonia; Amazon also has inhabitants in the region of the upper Rio Madeira and the lower Rio Tapajós. Brown Tinamou is also present in southeastern Brazil, north to Bahia, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. The Americas is all-round. Brown Tinamou usually occurs in southeastern Brazil's tropical mountain forests in the foothills and the Andes, as well as in similar ecosystems. In Venezuela, Black Tinamou is also synonymous with dark gullies. In Amazonia, Brown Tinamous grows in evergreen, lowland tropical forests. Historically the Black Tinamou also occupies dry land. The diet is little known but seeds are recorded to be eaten from the Poaceae, Lauraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rutaceae families. This is also possible that they will even consume invertebrates from time to time, as was allegedly observed once in a pair of Brown Tinamous following a swarm of arny ats from which they pecked from time to time tiny mice. The song of Brown Tinamou is typically a series of fast, brief trills, which gradually develop in tone. The album has some regional variation which needs further research. Brown Tinamou is usually solitary or in pairs.
The Dwarf Tinamou is the sole member of the Taoniscus genus and is now very unfortunately very endangered and is being classified by BirdLife International as vulnerable because of the species ' favoured habititat, natural grasslands, particularly campo sujo, have been lost in recent decades at a disastrous rate to agricultural development. This tinamou bird is endemic to the Cerrado biome, where it is mostly restricted to southeast and central Brazil; while there are three old specimens from Paraguay and Argentina, the Dwarf Tinamou has not been recorded in either region recently. This is a small, plump yet short-legged tinamou, often of light buffy-brown plumage. The female with a whiter stomach is marked with greater confidence, and darker than the male. The Lesser Nothura is larger among similar species, with a longer body and heavier barred plumage. Better comprehension of the Dwarf Tinamou's voice, a high-pitched and distorted, cricket-like trill accompanied by several peet sounds, may lead to further recording of the species available due to its unchallenged rareness. A small, superficially partridge-like bird with short tail and wings is the miniature tinamou, also known as the least tinamou. Tinamous, like other ratites, can float but in general they are not fast fliers. All ratites derived from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest living relative to these birds. The miniature tinamou is only a member of the genus Taoniscus, which is a monotypical species. It's approximately 16 cm tall. For a white throat, sharply patterned collar and upper parts, it is greyish-brown and has brown-barred subparts of buff and a blackish crown that stands out. Some individuals are much darker and greyer than others, but it is unclear if such plumage variations are morphs or gender differences that occur over time. Of colour, the iris and legs are yellowish and it resembles a little dumpy nothura, but with the ocellated crake it is more readily confused in more cases.. The voice consists of cricket-like, high-pitched trills followed by peet clicks. The dwarf tinamou is found in the arid scrub grasslands, about 1,000 metres above sea level, confined to the southeastern Brazilian Cerrado region in the Federal District, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, and for that cause. Only specimens were known from Paraguay (Misiones) and Argentina but all recent data come from Brazil. However, it is especially imperceptible, and is easily missed. The Dwarf Tinamou diet primarily consists of grass seeds, termites, flies, and arthropods. Thanks to mechanised agriculture, intensive cattle ranching, afforestation, native grasses, excessive use of pesticides and annual deforestation, the dwarf tinamou is seriously endangered by continuing habitat loss. This is also killed by humans in many areas for food. The primary challenges are forestry and ranching. The dwarf tinamou is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This has an occurrence size of 57,700 km2, and the last demographic census, conducted in 2000, saw between 5,800 and 6,960 people. The dwarf tinamou is permanently conserved in three protected areas: Serra da Canastra National Park, Itapetininga Experimental Station and IBGE Roncador Ecological Reserve. Several areas adjacent to the Río Bermejo, Argentina, were scanned with the aid of tape-playback but the species was not found. It was also intended to use tape-playback particularly for this species to study Serra do Cipó National Park, Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, and Emas National Park. Then perform further research at the sites where the specimen was collected in then Paraguay, Argentina. It has also been proposed to establish best conservation strategies for current protected areas and track the degradation of the cerrado forests.
Darwin's Nothura, also known as Pale-spotted Nothura, was described from a specimen taken from southern Buenos Aires in Argentina but its range stretches north to central Peru. This tiny tinamou is mostly found in the highlands, reaching from 1000 m to at least 4300 m, and inhabits savanna, shrubby steppe and even cultivated land. Globally, Nothura by Darwin overlaps globally with similar Spotted Nothura, but Darwin's usually occurs in drier areas and higher elevations. In this species ' very wide geographical range, five subspecies are recognised, and these differ mostly in overall size and overall colouration. Darwin's Nothura is breeding at the ground, and apparently only the male is building the nest. The birds breed in the southern spring and summer, at least in the southern portion of the range. Tinamous are storied, long winged desert birds with very short tails. Five small, short billed, tawny tinamous birds are Nothuras, all inhabiting grasslands or open scrub. Nothura by Darwin is a tiny tawny tinamou of very short-necked size. The upper parts are tawny, feathered with large black bars and narrow light grey borders. Tawny head and ears, dusky and spotted. The underparts are mainly tawny, with the neck and breast more or less streaked with dusky. The genders are identical. Darwin's Nothura distinguishes itself in much of its geographical range by its open habitat and limited size: it is slightly taller and more tawny than Ornate Tinamou, and smaller than Andean Tinamou with a much shorter bill and a taller breast. In lower elevations Andean Tinamou also occurs and this nothura is not considered to be syntopic. Darwin's Nothura resembles the other four nothura species of which only Spotted Nothura has a regional similarity. Those two species are very similar but there are more tarsi and toes in Spotted Nothura. The inner webs of the main outermost Spotted are barred while those inner webs are usually unbarred in Darwin's. The two nothura, too, have distinct vocalisations. Iris changes in colour with maturity. At hatching the irides are medium- to dark brown. By the age of one and a half weeks the irides become paler and grayer and by the third week the irides are deep brown. After five weeks, the colour switches from white to light green, while some people's irides have turned dusky blue. After six weeks, most birds have dusky, yellow irides but occasionally a greenish hue. The iris in males is dusky lemon yellow by 8 weeks, and in females it is medium dark yellow, often with hint of rufous. Most males have ten to twelve weeks of dusky lemon yellow irides, as in adults, but not yet as dark as the irides would be at one to two years old. Female irides change to a much deeper yellow bordering on rufous; the females lose all the yellow in the iris with maturity, and the iris is a bright, deep orange colour. Darwin's Nothura is terrestrial, and appears to flee by escaping when disturbed. Even when flushed, they ride fine and fast. The flight is low, just 2-5 m above level, but the duration of the flight ranges from 20-400 m, and usually the direction of flight is straight or forming a wide arc. Usually a pair of participants don't swim together, but instead they pass in divergent directions. Nothuras are not typically especially cautious, even though they are being deliberately hunted. Copulation will last at least two minutes, during which the female squats with the head tilted uo, turning the head from side to side in a 90o arc very easily. Meanwhile, the man also attempts to maintain his balance and stabilises his position by stretching out a little down the wings to touch the leg of the girl.
The Choco tinamou or Chocó tinamou (Crypturellus kerriae) is a species of tinamou found in lowland forest and montane forest in the subtropical and tropical regions of Colombia and Panama. The Choco tinamou has a length of between 25-26.5 cm. This is a tinamou of short, light silence. Its tops are dark brown with black crown, slate-gray neck ends, whitish neck ends and indistinct dusky shield. Her thighs are painted purple. On wing-covers and breast, the females are black with coarser barring, and grey flanks. Its three-note whistle, it has a quiet, gentle, mournful sound. The Choco tinamou consumes fruit like other tinamous, or low-lying trees off the ground. We do consume small amounts of invertebrates, blossoms, tender herbs, seeds, and roots. The male incubates the eggs which can come from as many as four different females, and then holds them up until they can be autonomous, normally 2–3 weeks. The nest is on the ground in dense scrub, between raised root buttresses. The Choco tinamou is a monotypical genus. All tinamou are from the family Tinamidae, and are also ratites in the broader scheme. Tinamous, like other ratites, can float but in general they are not strong fliers. All ratites originated from ancient flying birds and tinamous are the closest living relative to these birds. Crypturellus consists of three words, either Latin, or Greek. Kruptos meaning concealed or obscured, oura meaning mouth, and ellus meaning diminutive. Sometimes, Crypturellus means tiny hidden tail. This plant is found in the northwestern province of Chocó in Colombia, and the southern province of Darién in Panama The Choco tinamou grows in evergreen humid tropical and subtropical forests, both lowland and woodland, up to 1,500 m above sea level. Currently the Choco tinamou is threatened by the significant destruction of its habitats caused by road building, human settlement, wood processing and mining. Completing a new road-bridge has opened up settlement to threatened parts of the coastal plain adjacent to Ensenada de Utría National Park, which further threatens their biodiversity. Maybe the most endangered species in Atrato Valley, Colombia, would be caused by human settlement and conversion to agriculture and banana plantations. It is possibly hunted anywhere humans are located. Currently the development of the Pan-American highway through Darién and the canalization of the Truandó and lower Atrato rivers to create an inter-oceanic fairway are on hold, but if it is to be completed it would have major ecological consequences. The key problems are agriculture, and on-hold transport arrangements. The Choco tinamou is currently found in Darién National Park, Panama and the Ensenada de Utría National Park, Colombia. The Los Katíos National Park, Colombia, also protects 720 km2 of apparently acceptable habitat in the Chocó region, but the species has not yet been identified in the Reserve. It was recommended to survey areas and study the ecosystem to get a clearer understanding of their location and distribution. The status of Choco tinamou is considered vulnerable as it is founded within its restricted range from only a few areas where vegetation gradually declines. It has an incidence scale of 6,200 km2, averaging fewer than 10,000 adult birds for 2000. Choco Tinamou is located in dense tropical forest at an altitude of 300–1500 m in remote south-eastern Panama and north-western Colombia, an region which ornithologists seldom visit. As a result, this relatively small, black headed tinamou remains quite elusive, and almost none of its natural history was recorded here. Many researchers have suggested improved recognition of this species as an separate Slaty-breasted Tinamou subspecies. Tiny Tinamou is smaller than Choco Tinamou and has greyish heads while Berlepsch's Tinamou is larger and blacker. Choco Tinamou's voice is described as a low pitched, gentle, mournful, three-note whistle. BirdLife International is currently considering that this tinamou is vulnerable worldwide, based on its restricted range and probably declining population.
Chilean Tinamou is the only common and endemic tinamou in Chile. This is a common species that stretches south to the central area of Chile's Lake Region. Birds from the wetter southern portion of the range are darker than those from the drier north, although the distinction is medicinal. Chilean Tinamou is known locally as perdiz, the Spanish word for "partridge" Locals say the bird was plentiful at one time; if so, its long-term decline may be attributed in part to the steady growth of the California Quail introduced. Chilean Tinamou is found in grassland, open acacia scrub and grassy matorral forest but also occupies orchards, rural areas, fallow land, and wheat and canola fields as well. Males mark their territories with a loud double whistle, and make strident alarm whistles when they are flushed from a hiding spot. All tinamous are of the family Tinamidae, and even ratites are in the broader scheme. Tinamou can fly like other ratites, but in general they are not fast fliers. Both ratites originated from ancient flying birds and tinamou are the closest living relative to these birds. Crypturellus consists of three words, either Latin, or Greek. Kruptos meaning concealed or obscured, oura meaning mouth, and ellus meaning diminutive. Often, Crypturellus means thin, hidden tail. The Chilean tinamou is about 29 cm tall. This is almost tailless, and is stocky in form. This has a long tail resembling the California quail. The legs are long, slender, yellowish, and translucent. This stands usually straight and has "short tail and tail coverings dropping behind knees." The pattern on its upper body looks carved, but is more complex in depth. It has a buffy nose on the chin with a drooping black eyeline and a narrow stripe, with a lighter crown. The hair is ivory, and the lower back has black stripes. This has a complex design on the side of the chest that shades white. Located just south of the Maule region, the Chilean tinamou has a brownish chest on its upper body and buttocks, instead of a white chest with more reddish brown borders. For both countries, it has broad wings that shield the body while on the ground, and the wings beneath are narrower and reddish brown when soaring. Similarly the wings are squared. Chilean Tinamou, as the name suggests, is native towards Chile. It is native in south Atacama from the Huasco River to Llanquihue in central Chile. The mountain limit of Chilean Tinamou ranges from sea level to 2000 m. The diet of Chilean Tinamou was surprisingly poorly known before the survey performed by González evaluating the crop and stomach content of 79 people from year-round in Ñuble, southern central Chile. Chilean Tinamou is mostly granivorous according to this report, as the diet consisted mostly of wild plant seeds. This tinamous seeds primarily forage on grass seeds, including Panicum capillare and Lolium sp seeds, over the season. The most commonly eaten. The most important food components in the winter diet are convolvulaceae, fabaceae, and polygonaceae seeds. Chilean Tinamous consume a greater proportion of invertebrates in the summer than in the winter but there are no major differences. Invertebrates only contribute a small amount to the diet and only one species of mosquitoes and one species of crustaceans are known animals eaten. The music of Chilean Tinamou is described as "a whistled tweewít" or a "strident, disruptive, far-carrying whistle that sounds like a double-syllable, sweeee weeee." The animal uses its bill to pick out seeds and bulbs from the soil. Chilean Tinamou normally retreats in the area, within the shelter, and only flushes like a really close approach. The flight is quick and rapid, "but the bird quickly stalls, and if flushed and persistently chased, may often be caught on the ground." Male Chilean Tinamous mate with several females, each of whom lay eggs in one nest; then each female mates with one or more males. It is compatible with the mating strategies of many species, since "the basic concept of tinamous is simultaneous male polygyny and female serial polyandry." Foxes mainly prey on mice in Chile, but eat small numbers of Chilean Tinamous.
Endemic to the Andes of northern Ecuador in central Peru, where it grows between 2800 and 3900 m, the Curve-billed Tinamou is found both in tropical and semi-arid puna and páramo, characterised by evergreen foliage, such as bunch grasses, and is often widely used in slash-and-burn cultivation. Well-named for the unusually curved tail, the upper portions are dark brown spotted with black and streaked white buffalo, while the body is silver, stretching from breast to tawny rufous, and just marginally light on the rest of the subparts. The sexes are essentially identical in plumage. The species overlaps with the Andean Tinamou in some areas, but is slightly smaller, greyer above, less defined below, and loses any reddish in the skin. Two subspecies are recognised, the form of Ecuador is slightly larger and heavier, and the shape of Peru becomes lighter and smaller. The Curve-billed Tinamou is widely popular but is not especially well known in terms of its life history as is the majority of tinamous people. This reflects the very unusual usage of this tinamou, except though flushed by mistake. This breeds between January and August, and the eggs are white chocolate, but on this high-altitude tinamou there are a few other information available. The Tinamou Curve-billed is overall brownish with a black back and rufous underparts. The bands at the sides of the head are reddish brown. The underside of the mandible is brown. This also shows rufous coverts on the tail, and on the ground feathers. It forges in grasslands, with scattered bushes. The Curve-billed Tinamou typically ranges from 2800-3600 m in northern to central Peru. The curve-billed tinamou is a form of tinamou typically found in the South American Andes in grassland and shrubland habitats. Crypturellus consists of three words, either Latin, or Greek. Kruptos meaning concealed or obscured, our ears saying, and ellus saying diminutive. Therefore Crypturellus means tiny hidden tail. Both tinamou are from the tribe of Tinamidae and are also ratites in the broader scheme. Tinamous, like other ratites, can float but in general they are not fast fliers. All ratites derived from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest living relative to these birds. Curve-billed tinamou is 28 cm long. The upper parts are rich chocolate, painted in white and outlined in charcoal. Her breast is rufous and white spotted, her belly is tawny-buff and her crown is black, green on her head sides and gold on her back and foreneck. In the end his legs are black in colour. The curved tinamou eats fruit from the grass, or low-lying trees, like other tinamous. They also eat small quantities of invertebrates, blossoms, delicate herbs, seeds, and roots. The male incubates the eggs which can come from as many as four different females, and then holds them up until they can be stable, normally 2–3 weeks. On the field the nest is in dense brush, in between high root buttresses. The tinamou lives in the Andes in central and southern Ecuador, north and west in Peru. At altitudes between 2.800 and 3.700 m, it prefers grassland. That can also be found at high altitudes of shrubland and pasture. The IUCN lists this species as the Least Concern, with an incidence area of 30,000 km2. There are two curve-billed tinamou sub-species. One of the two sub-species is N. c. Curvirostris, the genus called that occurs in Ecuador's central and southern Andes, and northern Peru. The most recent subspecies is N. c. Peruviana in the northern and central Andes of Peru; Piura, Cajamarca, Amazonas, San Martín, La Libertad, Ancash and Huánuco in the eastern regions.
Brushland Tinamou extends from southern Bolivia through southwestern Paraguay to north-central Argentina, where it inhabits dry savanna forests, desert scrub, grassy steppes, boundaries, and even flooded savannas in general. It can be found up to about 2000 m but typically occurs at lower elevations. The relatively small range of this species and, more specifically, its habitat needs (opener areas) have made Brushland Tinamou one of its family's better-studied members. The sexes are essentially the same as having darker barred greyish to olive brown upperparts, a blackish crest, and whitish to greyish underparts, with barred flanks. Although males are typically solitary birds, females generally fly around in ' pairs ' or sometimes even in small groups, which can extend through several male territories. Brushland Tinamous feed on a number of invertebrate preys, as well as on fruits and seeds. Tinamous are small birds with very short tails and long wings; they resemble superficially tailless quails. Brushland Tinamou is a tinamou of medium size with a long tail, a low crest and a strongly decurved bill. It has a rotund form, and a mysterious, streaked plumage. It is mainly dark above, and it appears to have two small white stripes on the feathers on its tail, black barring and grey edging. On its hind neck there are large black stripes, and long black feathers in its crown that can be briefly raised to form a crest. The breast is brown with white splotches and is whitish in the chest and belly. The flanks are a buffy grey, dusky. Adults have somewhat elongated crown feathers, and black, or white with black centres. Upperparts are otherwise mostly greyish to light brown olive, patterned with short whitish lines, black bars and black vermiculations. Nape and sides of neck often broadly striped with black. Remiges dusky brown, uniformly inked or marked outer branches of white buffalo. The sides of the head, throat and foreneck, particularly afterwards, are white, strongly patched or barred with black. Pale grey or greyish brown breast, spotted with hair. White flanks with light brown barring, and often tinged with buff. Black butt. Brushland Tinamou's diet is composed of budding leaves, plant shoots, vegetables, and insects. Insects make up a large portion of their diet; the main insects eaten include ants, beetles, and cicadas. These tinamous ones are opportunistic foragers and eat mollusks while they are in the proximity of an irrigation ditch. Brushland Tinamou trees on the grass, creeping around with their low head. It normally gleans from the ground using its bill, but often leaps upward or even hops for low hanging fruit. Most of the insects that it catches are quickly consumed, but huge beetles and cicadas are beaten to the ground before feeding. Specially after it rains, it will check the soil for earthworms and insect larvae. Once an earthworm is trapped, a tinamou shakes the worm by tossing its head from side to side rapidly, jabbing the worm and then swallowing it. It uses the bill, but not the paws, to pick off twigs and leaf litter while it forages. A tinamou cleans his bill after snoring the soil by rubbing it against the stone, a leaf, a stick, or a grass stem. Occasionally the bird cleans his bill by taking a blade of grass and running the bill over the grass with a jerk of his head sideways. Tinamous Brushland drinks seldom. They extend their neck out while they drink, and place the distal end of the bill in the beer. As they drink, they make 6-12 throat movements and as they swallow, they lower their head towards the mouth but do not lift it upwards. When tinamous approach each other early in the breeding season they go into defensive postures in which they crouch and keep their head low to the ground. Generally these partnerships don't lead to a pursuit. But birds appear to be more aggressive later in the season. They line up straight with their arms extended out and if no bird retreats, they run at each other and threaten to peck each other's heads. These battles usually end quickly, but occur in quick succession in bouts of up to five attacks. Often, the champion then chases the loser.
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