It makes sense to say how to eat rice more healthily.
Rice is the most common staple food in China, but few people seriously think about it: how to eat rice is healthier? Recently, it has been reported that Sri Lankan scientists have developed a simple new method of cooking rice that can reduce the calories absorbed by the body from rice by more than half, which may help reduce the obesity rate. How on earth does it do it?
Reason for energy reduction: resistant starch
Rice contains a lot of starch, and starch is divided into digestible starch and indigestible resistant starch (resistant starch), resistant starch can not be broken down in the small intestine, so it will not produce energy. The secret of this new cooking method is to increase the content of resistant starch in rice: when steaming rice, first add a teaspoon of coconut oil to boiling water, then add half a cup of rice and steam over low heat for 40 minutes; then, put the steamed rice in the refrigerator for 12 hours. Compared with the traditional method, the content of resistant starch in the rice cooked by this method increased by 10 times.
What causes it? The researchers believe that the oil enters the starch grains during cooking, changing its structure so that it cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes, and that the cooling process is important because soluble amylose detaches from the starch grains during gelatinization. Cooling for 12 hours causes hydrogen bonds between amylose molecules outside the rice grains to become resistant starch. This means that the body will eventually absorb fewer calories. The results were presented on March 25 at the 249th annual meeting of the American Chemical Society in Denver, USA.
Unsuitable cooking: cooking with a little oil
Seeing this news, many people may think that cooking rice with a little oil can reduce energy intake and prevent obesity. But don't be in such a hurry to refuel the rice. This study is helpful for us to understand the digestive characteristics of boiled rice, but this method of cooking rice can not be applied to real life yet.
First of all, the amount of refueling in the experiment is not low, and the overall energy of rice may not be reduced. Although the researchers say that after adding oil, the starch in the oil and rice will form a compound that will not add extra calories, but because the paper has not yet been published, we do not see the specific experimental data, so we have reservations about this. And in real life, people's grasp of the amount of fuel is more difficult to control, it is easy to add more. Coconut oil is also fat, and like other edible oils, coconut oil per gram provides the body with 9 kilocalorie calories; 2 tablespoons (30 milliliters) of coconut oil has about 230 kcal calories, which is equivalent to a medium-sized bowl of white rice.
Secondly, in the study, the rice was heated and then refrigerated for 12 hours. But in real life, we seldom cook the rice and then cool it. Even if it is cooled, it is difficult for the average family to refrigerate for 12 hours as it did in the experiment. For the average family, there may also be a risk of microbial contamination when refrigerated for 12 hours.
In addition, this study is only the results of in vitro digestion, what is the situation of the human body after eating, how to feel full, how to react to blood sugar, have not been studied. Therefore, it is not recommended that everyone refuel when cooking.
Rice is not easy.
In fact, eating rice should not only consider the amount of energy, but also consider the efficiency of energy supply, such as digestion speed, blood sugar response and so on. The same energy food, if the digestion rate is very fast, then people's blood sugar will rise quickly after eating, and will soon feel hungry again, it is easy to eat more. We usually use "fullness" to express the effect of food after eating. The feeling of satiety can be seen as the feeling that you don't need to eat for a period of time after you are full. From the point of view of blood sugar control and weight control, we generally hope that rice will feel fuller and digest more slowly, so that we can eat less, and we won't be hungry for a long time, and our blood sugar levels will be lower. This is good for energy intake control and weight control.
Although the treatment in this study increased the content of resistant starch and reduced the amount of energy absorbed in rice, other factors may also affect rice digestion and postprandial blood sugar, so it is not enough to consider reducing resistant starch. In fact, our laboratory has also done some research on grain digestion. We also found similar results: adding a little oil when cooking rice can reduce the digestion rate, and the content of resistant starch will increase after cold storage. However, when the rice was cooked and cooled, the blood sugar reaction was still very high, while the content of resistant starch did not change significantly. In the glutinous rice experiment, we found that the blood sugar response of glutinous rice was even higher after reheating, which would adversely affect the blood sugar control. In human experiments, we found that oiled rice will feel less full and more hungry. In practice, you may be more likely to eat more, which is bad for overall energy and blood sugar control.
How to eat rice healthier?
How on earth can you eat rice to be healthier? If you want to control blood sugar and weight, you should try to increase the amount of resistant starch and slowly digested starch in rice (slowly digested starch absorbs slowly, causing only a small amount of insulin secretion). Increase the sense of fullness of the rice and slow down the digestion. The factors that affect the digestive properties of rice are complex, and here are only a few suggestions:
Eat less white rice, cook for brown rice and add coarse grains and beans
Rice, especially now refined white rice, is very disadvantageous to the control of blood sugar because of its good digestion and fast reaction of postprandial blood sugar. Black rice, purple rice and brown rice, which are rich in dietary fiber, are good choices to slow down digestion. Therefore, the ideal way to control blood sugar and digestion speed is to eat less white rice. Usually cooking do not always use white rice, might as well change some brown rice, coarse grains mixed beans and so on. Not really, you can add some coarse grains and mixed beans when cooking white rice, such as mung beans, red beans, peas and lotus seeds, which can significantly increase the sense of fullness of rice and rice porridge and slow down the speed of digestion.
Don't cook the rice too badly or too soft.
Many people like to make the rice soft. Soak the rice for a few hours before steaming the rice, then cook it slowly over low heat or in a pressure cooker to make the rice softer and worse. It tastes much better in this way, but the digestion rate and postprandial blood sugar reaction of this kind of rice will also increase significantly. Studies have shown that soaking, increasing the amount of water and prolonging the cooking time can speed up the starch digestion of rice. Therefore, it is recommended that you should not cook too soft and bad at ordinary times.
Less oil and salt in rice
Cooking rice with oil will not only increase the energy in the rice, but also reduce the sense of fullness, so it is easy to eat more, which is very disadvantageous to weight control. The addition of salt will increase the content of fast digested starch and speed up the digestion rate of rice. Other studies have found that eating foods containing sodium salt can increase the body's postprandial blood sugar response, possibly because sodium salt increases the activity of digestive enzymes. Therefore, it is best to cook rice with little or no salt, and cook less rice that requires refueling and salt, such as all kinds of fried rice, especially people with diabetes, should eat less rice made by this method. When eati