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Rising Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Prevalence Posing a Major Public Health Concern

by Simran Rehani 2 months ago in science
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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Prevalence

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is more common each year; it is predicted that 190,000 Americans alone will receive an ARDS diagnosis this year. More than 700,000 people in the US and 2 million instances worldwide had ARDS before the COVID-19 global pandemic, with a 40% cumulative mortality rate due to trauma, sepsis, bacterial, and viral infections. Because neither SARS-CoV-2 immunizations nor anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines address the uncontrolled inflammation that encourages multiorgan failure and ARDS death, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light numerous serious unmet requirements in the ARDS domain.

Precision medicine approaches to ARDS have not yet been used and validated ARDS biomarkers are not yet available, despite recent developments in translational research and the exponential expansion in identifying new biomarkers. This urgent unmet need in ARDS highlights a key gap between the quick discovery of biomarkers and their efficient translation to clinical use, as well as the requirement for biomarkers to drive a more expedited medication approval process. One of the numerous reasons why clinical studies in ARDS fail is the lack of reliable and validated ARDS biomarkers.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Epidemiology Insights

Except for the UK, where sepsis was the main risk factor for ARDS, pneumonia was typically the main risk factor linked to the largest number of ARDS incident cases throughout the 7MM countries. In addition, most nations exhibit a similar trend, with the majority of cases indicating intermediate ARDS, except for France, where severe instances of ARDS accounted for the majority of the patient population, according to DelveInsight's estimate of severity-specific incidence.

Driving Factors and Epidemiological Trends for ARDS Prevalence

The main causes of ARDS prevalence include pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration, trauma, pancreatitis, COVID-19, and other conditions. It is anticipated that ARDS prevalence will grow in the upcoming years due to an increase in these causes. As a result, it is estimated that the epidemiology of ARDS will continue on its current course in the future. However, pneumonia and COVID-19 are anticipated to play a significant role in the rise in ARDS prevalence by 2032.

Impact of COVID-19 on ARDS Prevalence

COVID-19 has become known as a significant cause of ARDS. Patients with symptoms like hypoxemia, low pulmonary compliance, non-cardiac pulmonary edoema, and increased work of breathing were the first to be diagnosed with ARDS in 1968.

ARDS in patients may have developed due to host chemicals that were already present or viral impacts. Due to the actions of neutrophils, eosinophils, proteinases, IL-6, and TNF-, ARDS can be lethal. The extreme tissue damage they cause and the resulting aggravation can be lethal. Although the mechanism of COVID-19 in ARDS is yet unknown, the activation of cytokine storm is currently thought to be the main contributing cause.

Way ahead

A potentially fatal medical disease known as acute respiratory failure (ARF) is characterized by a greater need for ICU hospitalization and a frequent necessity for mechanical ventilation. A potentially fatal condition known as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute-onset, widespread, inflammatory lung injury that leads to hypoxemic respiratory failure and insufficiency because of increased pulmonary vascular permeability and loss of ventilated lung tissue. One of the most typical causes of ARF is ARDS. Nearly 3 million patients are affected by ARDS annually, which accounts for 10% of ICU hospitalizations and 24% of patients who require mechanical breathing.

Depending on the severity of the disease at the time of onset, this potentially fatal respiratory condition can be brought on by pulmonary (aspiration, COVID-19, pneumonia, and inhalational injury) or nonpulmonary (trauma, pancreatitis, sepsis, and drug toxicity) causes. The mortality rate ranges from 35 to 46%. Despite significant advances in knowledge regarding the causation, progression, and treatment of ARDS and ARF, the United States' current mortality statistics for both conditions remain deficient. These geographical disparities may be exacerbated by the enormous infrastructural pressure caused by COVID-19.

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Simran Rehani

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