T

test

I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

How does it work?
  • test
    Published 4 months ago
    Cleanthes

    Cleanthes

    As the second head of Stoic school in Athens, Cleanthes of Assos was a Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium. He was an athlete at first and excelled at many sports and then eventually moved to Athens where he took up philosophy and listened to the lectures given by Zeno. He kept himself awake late at night serving as a water carrier. He became the president of the academy after Zeno's death 262 BC, a position which he retained for the next 32 years. Cleanthes had the Zeno doctrines preserved and implemented successfully. He developed new concepts in Stoic theory, and founded Stoicism on the premises of materialism and pantheism. Of the fragments of Cleanthes 'books that have fallen down to us, the best is a Hymn to Zeus. The pupil was Chrysippus who was one of the Stoic philosophers of highest importance. Cleanthes was born at Assos in the Troad, about 330 BC. He was a relative of Phanias, says Diogenes Laërtius, and he had been a boxer early in life. He came to Athens with only four drachmae in his hands, where he took up philosophy, first listening to the Crates the Cynic lectures, then to the Zeno the Stoic lectures. He served as a water carrier as a gardener all night, to support himself. Until the Areopagus he was called upon to apologise for his way of life as he spent the whole day studying philosophy without any practical help. The judges were so satisfied with the testimony that he created ten minae from the research they voted for him, but Zeno did not allow him to approve it. His strength of stubborn stamina, or even his slowness, gained his fellow students 'nickname "The Butt," a term he was said to have rejoiced in because it meant that his back was sturdy enough to endure whatever Zeno put on it. This was the religion that had awoken his strong spiritual values, and he became the head of the school following the death of Zeno in 262. Nevertheless he continued to support himself in his own jobs. His brother, Chrysippus, and Antigonus II Gonatas were among his pupils and he was given 3000 minae by them. He died at 99, c. AD 230 We're told he'd been lying for a while because of a debilitating ulcer. He eventually maintained his abstinence, saying he wasn't going to have trouble turning back his steps because he was only halfway on the road of suicide. Simplicius, writing in the 6th century A.D., states that the Roman Senate had erected a statue of Cleanthes that was still visible at Assos. Cleanthes was an important figure in Stoicism's development and stamped his face on the academy's physical speculations, which brought the Stoic culture a unity by his materialism. He composed some fifty books, of which authors like Diogenes Laërtius, Stobaeus, Cicero, Seneca, and Plutarch kept only fragments. Via the idea of stress that distinguished stoic materialism from other concepts of matter as dead and inert, Cleanthes revolutionised stoic thought. He founded Stoic pantheism and applied logic and ethics to its materialistic views. So he argued that the soul was a material substance, and that this was proven by the fact that not only physical qualities but also intellectual ability are passed from parent to child by ordinary generation; and by the solidarity of the soul with the body, as demonstrated by the fact that the soul is pained when the body is hit or cut; and when the soul is broken by terror or disrupted by treatment, t Clea His concludes
  • test
    Published 4 months ago
    Crates of Thebes

    Crates of Thebes

    Crates Thebes was a Philosopher of Skepticism. Crates threw his wealth away to live a life in deprivation in the streets in Athens. He married Maroneia's Hipparchia who had lived in the same manner as he had. He is the author of Zeno de Citium, the father of Stoicism, which the people of Athens recall. Numerous fragments of the teachings of Crates survive including his explanation of the perfect Cynic state. Crafted at Crates c. 365 In Thebes, BC, he was the son of Ascondus, and claimant to a great fortune that he is said to have renounced in Athens to live a life of wretched deprivation. Diogenes Laërtius has many different interpretations of this store; one of them has Crates distributing his money to the people of Thebes, presumably after watching the beggar king Telephus in a tragedy; while another version puts his money in the hands of a merchant, promising to distribute it to his sons, because they too become philosophers, in which case he will become philosophers. He drew the attentions of Maroneia's Hipparchia, the niece of one fellow Crates, Metrocles. Hipparchia is said to have fallen in love with Crates and his life and beliefs and she married him rejecting her affluent lifestyle in a similar manner to Crates. The union was worthy of notice, because it was based on the couple's shared love and honour. Hipparchia stores emerging in public with Crates everywhere are specifically listed because decent women did not act in such a manner, so they had sexual relations in public as part of Cynic shamelessness. They had at least two kids, a girl named Pasicles and one friend. We learn that Crates is supposed to have coerced his son into sex by taking him to a brothel and he has given prospective suitors a month's trial marriage to his friend. In the last years of the century, he was the tutor of Zeno of Citium, and was without a doubt the greatest influence on Zeno in his development of Stoic philosophy. Zeno has always looked at Crates with the utmost care and some of the information we have about Crates certainly come down to us through the writings of Zeno. He may also have advised Cleanthes as the founder of the Stoic School, Zeno's successor. Crates wrote a book of letters on metaphysical topics, whose style Diogenes Laërtius compares to Plato's; but they do not survive any more. There are 36 surviving Cynic epistles ascribed to Crates but these are writings later in the 1st century. Additionally, Crates was the translator of some metaphysical tragedies, including several smaller poetry entitled Games. There are still varying pieces of his mind. He taught a simple asceticism that seems milder than his predecessor Diogenes. Another of his poems has parodied Solon's popular hymn to the Muses. And while Solon was justly trying to gain rank, popularity, and wealth, Crates generally had cynical desires. Many of his metaphysical works, in the form of spoudaiogeloion, were covered with irony. He advised people to include nothing but lentils in their meals, since the major causes of seditions and insurrections in a country were luxury and extravagance. This jest will be the basis of much irony later, as in Deipnosophistae's Athenaeus 'book 4, when a group of cynics sit down for a meal and are being served chasing after lentil soup. There are also some remaining fragments of a poem written by Crates describing the ideal Cynic state which begins by parodying Homer's depiction of Crete. The Crates-Hipparchia relation has been the subject of numerous fictional accounts. A fictitious biography of Crates was published in his 1896 novel Vies imaginaires, by French poet Marcel Schwob.
  • test
    Published 4 months ago
    Critolaus

    Critolaus

    Critolaus Phaselis was a Peripatetic Greek philosopher. He was one of three philosophers sent to Rome in 155 BC where the people were intrigued by their ideas but frightened the more conservative men of state. There are few inscriptions of him that survive. He was interested in politics and ethics, and had fun as bad. He maintained Aristotelian philosophy of the world's existence, and of the human race generally, based his theories on the Stoics. He was born in Greek Colony at Phaselis, in Lycia, c. 200 BC, studied philosophy under Aristo of Ceos at Athens, and was one of the founders of the Peripatetic Academy by his eminence as an orator, historian and moralist. A lot of discussion has been going on on whether he was Aristo's legitimate successor but the facts are in doubt. The enormous prestige that Critolaus enjoyed as a historian, orator, and a statesman at Athens convinced the Athenians to send him to Rome in 155 BC along with Carneades and Diogenes the Stoic to receive a refund of the fine of 500 talents that the Romans had levied on Athens for the defeat of Oropus. The goal they had come for was successful; and the Rome embassy attracted the greatest interest. Not just the Roman youth but the state's most respected men like Scipio Africanus, Laelius, Furius and others came to hear their voice. The novelty of their teachings was rife with such threat to the morality of the people to the Romans of the old century, that Cato convinced the senate to drive them away from Rome as quickly as possible. Gellius describes the declarations as beautiful and polished. We don't have any specific details about 'Critolaus career. He lived for 82 years but died c. 118 AD. By the time Licinius Crassus came to Athens c. 111 BC, he installed Diodorus of Tyre, a pupil of Critolaus, at the head of the Peripatetic Academy. Critolaus seems to have paid careful attention to Rhetoric because, like Aristotle, he viewed it as an action rather than an art. Cicero simply talks of his eloquence. Critolaus seems to have assigned his chief focus to the study of moral philosophy alongside Rhetoric, and made numerous changes to Aristotle's method. He generally deviated very little from the central values of the Peripatetic School, though he went beyond his peers in certain respects. For one, he believed that happiness is bad, and certainly maintained that the soul is aether. For him, the end of time was the overall culmination of human being, including products of the soul and body, and even products beyond it. Cicero states in the Tusculanae Quaestiones that for him the soul's goods were entirely superior to the other goods. He also embraced the Peripatetic theory of real life and the indestructibility of the human race against the Stoics. There is no observable alteration in the natural order of things; according to the capacity provided by God, humanity recreates itself in the same manner, and the different ills of which it is heir, though fatal of persons, do not affect the entirety. Much as it is unthinkable to believe that humans are simply born on earth, it is inconceivable the prospect of their complete extinction. The universe itself needs to be eternal, as the expression of divine order. Plutarch names the author of a book on Epirus and another book entitled Phenomena a Critolaus; and as a historical poet, Aulus Gellius speaks of this name too. This can not be ascertained if the historian is the same as the Peripatetic philosopher. A grammar of Critolaus is stated within the Magnum Etymologicum.
  • test
    Published 4 months ago
    Demetrius of Phalerum

    Demetrius of Phalerum

    Demetrius of Phalerum was an Athenian orator from Phalerum, a pupil of Theophrastus and possibly Aristotle, and one of the first Peripatetics. Demetrius was a respected statesman chosen by the Macedonian king, Cassander, to administer Athens, where he served for ten years as supreme ruler, making major reforms to the legal system while retaining oligarchical control for Cassander's benefit. His rivals exiled him in 307 BC and after 297 BC, he went first to Thebes, then to Alexandria's court. He has published extensively on literature, cultural criticism and policy issues. He is not to be confused with his son, also named Phaleron's Demetrius, who may have served as Athens 'regent between 262 and 255 on behalf of the Macedonian King Antigonos Gonatas. Demetrius was born in 350 BC, at Phalerum. He was the son of Phanostratus, a man without rank or properties and a nephew of Himeraeus, the anti-Macedonian orator. He was educated at the school in Theophrastus along with poet Menander. Around the time of the Harpalus disputes, he started his public career around 325 BC and soon acquired a great reputation due to the talent he showed in public speaking. He was a member of Phocion's pro-oligarchic party, and he behaved in that statesman's tradition. When Xenocrates did not afford the new metics fee, 322 BC and he was threatened with slavery by the Athenians, he was spared only after Demetrius had bought his debt and paid the price. In 317 BC, Cassander placed Demetrius at the helm of the Athens government following the assassination of Phocion. He held this office for ten years, taking substantial regulatory reforms to bear. The Athenians honoured him with the most remarkable awards, and at least 360 statues were erected. Nevertheless, Demetrius was unpopular with the lower classes of Athenians and pro-democracy political forces, who resented the restrictions he imposed on the parliamentary franchise and treated him as nothing more than a pro-Macedonian puppet tyrant. The tale about the statues was not true according to Stephen V. Tracy; he also notes that Demetrius later played a major part in founding the Alexandrian Library. He continued in power until 307 BC when Demetrius Poliorcetes, adversary of Cassander, invaded Athens and Demetrius was forced to leave. It has been said that he had lost himself to a sort of luxury during the last portion of his presidency and we are advised that he was squandering 1200 talents a year on food, drinks and love affairs. Carystius of Pergamum states that Diognis, a envy of all the Athenian youth, by his reputation had a lover. During his exile, his enemies sought to force the people of Athens to put the death penalty on him, as a result of which his friend Menander nearly fell victim. For one exception, his paintings have gone missing. Demetrius went first to Thebes, then to Ptolemy I Soter's court at Alexandria, with whom he kept on the strongest terms for several years, and who is often said to have entrusted him with the reform of his empire's laws. During his stay at Alexandria he primarily dedicated himself to literary pursuits, often cherishing his own country's memory. Demetrius fell into defeat on the accession of Ptolemy Philadelphus and was forced to exile in Upper Egypt. A monument at Memphis Saqqara is credited to him according to one account. He had been told he suffered from a poisonous snake's bite. Soon after the year 283 BC presumably his death was. Demetrius was the last orator at the Attic who deserved the name of the leaders, after which the practise went down. His prayers were characterised as gentle, graceful and elegant and not as magnificent as those of Demosthenes. His various writings, most of which he may have published during his Egyptian stay, included a wide variety of subjects, and Diogenes Laërtius 'collection of them shows he was a man with the most detailed acquisitions. All of these works have died, some ancient, some political, some philosophical and some fictional.
  • test
    Published 4 months ago
    Democritus

    Democritus

    Democritus was a pre-Socratic ancient Greek philosopher whose invention of atomic theory of the universe is widely accepted today. Democritus was born in 460 BC in Abdera, Thrace, though controversies surround the exact year. His exact accomplishments are hard to disassemble from those of his mentor Leucippus, as they are also mentioned in the texts. Their work on atoms, drawn from Leucippus, bears a slight and approximate similarity to the understanding of atomic structure in the 19th century, which has caused others to view Democritus as more of a physicist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas were based on very different premises. This is said in ancient Greece, often forgotten, that Plato so greatly hated Democritus that the latter wanted to ruin all his books. Nevertheless, Aristotle, his fellow northern born philosopher, was well regarded and mentor to Protagoras. Some regard Democritus as the founder of modern science. None of his plays survived; only fragments are known of his lengthy research. Many sources say Democritus followed the lead of Leucippus and took on the theory of moral rationalism synonymous with Miletus. They were strongly materialistic and thought that this was the product of natural laws. Unlike Aristotle or Plato, the atomists sought to describe the world for reason, prime mover, or final source. Physics questions would be answered with a mechanistic interpretation to the atomists, while their critics are looking at explanations that involved the formal and the teleological, alongside the material and mechanistic ones. Eusebius citing the Messene Aristocles places Democritus in a line of philosophy which began with Xenophanes and ended in Pyrrhonism. Earlier Greek scholars find that Democritus established aesthetics as a area of research and analysis, since he learned of poetry and fine art scientifically long before writers like Aristotle. Specifically, in the work of the philosopher, Thrasyllus listed six works that had belonged to aesthetics as a discipline, but there are only fragments of similar works; therefore, only a small percentage of his thoughts and ideas can be established from all the writings of Democritus on these matters. Democritus 'philosophy maintains that everything is made of atoms that are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that there is empty space between atoms; that atoms are indestructible, and have always been and will still be in motion; that there are an infinite number of atoms and shapes of atoms that vary in form and scale. As well as Leucippus and Epicurus, Democritus supported the earliest views on atomic modes and interaction. We believed that the substance's solidity corresponded to that of the atoms concerned. Therefore, the iron atoms are solid and strong with hooks that hold them in a block; the water atoms are smooth and slippery; the salt atoms are sharp and pointed because of their taste; and the air atoms are soft and whirling, pervading all other compounds. Using analogies from human sensory perceptions, he gave a picture or an image of an atom that separated them from each other by its form, size and arrangement of sections. Relationships were thus clarified by material encounters, in which individual atoms were provided with attachments: some with hooks and others with balls and sockets. The Democritan atom is an inert solid, that mechanically interacts with other atoms. Simple, quantum-mechanical atoms, by comparison, interact through fields of electrical and magnetic energy, and are far from inert. Atomic void theory was a reaction to the paradoxes of Parmenides and Zeno, the founders of philosophical thought, who offered strong reasoning in favour of refuting the notion that there should be no motion. We hold that any intervention would entail a vacuum, which is zero, so nothing will happen. Parmenides 'argument was reinforced by the fact that there is weather of which there appears to be nothing, and even when there is no matter there is more, like light waves.
  • test
    Published 4 months ago
    Diagoras of Melos

    Diagoras of Melos

    Diagoras "the Atheist" Melos was a 5th-century BC Greek poet and sophist. He was considered an atheist in ancient times, but very little of what he actually believed is understood. The anecdotes of his childhood suggest that he was speaking out about the ancient Greek tradition. He allegedly hacked up the Heracles 'wooden statue and used it to cook the lentils, exposing the Eleusinian Mysteries' origins. Because of his impiety the Athenians exiled him from their nation, and he died in Corinth. Diagoras was the son of Telecleides or Teleclytus, and was born on Melos Island, one of the Cyclades. During Democritus 'harsh subjugation after Democritus had paid 10,000 drachmas to liberate Diagoras from prison, he became a Democritus adherent according to the Suda; however, no early sources discuss an affiliation with Democritus. The Suda also notes that Diagoras had gained a certain prestige as a lyric poet in his youth, and that may be the reason for his contrast with the lyric poets Simonides, Pindar, and Bacchylides. A specific eulogy on Arianthes of Argos, which is otherwise obscure, another on Nicodorus, a statesman of Mantineia, and a third one on the Mantineians is mentioned among his encomies. Nicodorus was known in his native place as a statesman and lawgiver; Aelian tells us that Nicodorus 'lover was Diagoras, and he assisted Nicodorus in his laws. Aristotle and Polybius earlier extolled Mantineia's constitution as a remarkable case of political unity and order. The Athenian comic playwright Aristophanes in his Clouds alludes to Diagoras as a well-known character of the day, whose second, present edition possibly fell to around 419–17 BC. Diodorus states usthat a few years back, c. 415 BC, he was accused of impiety and found it better to escape from Athens in order to prevent prosecution and classical writers speak of a reward either for capturing him or killing him. Religion may have been just the explanation for the accusation, rendering him an target of mistrust with the Athens citizens for being a Melian. In 416 BC, Melos was humiliated and cruelly treated by the Athenians, and it is not unlikely for Diagoras, indignant at such treatment, to have taken part in the party struggle in Athens, and thus to bring upon himself the distrust of a democratic faction. Afterwards Diagoras went to Corinth where he died, as the Suda says. Neither his religious convictions, nor the essence of his alleged atheism, are known. All that's certain for sure on this point is that Diagoras was annoyed by the worship of the secular gods in Athens. Cicero, written in the 1st century BC, tells how a friend of Diagoras attempted to persuade him of the existence of gods by pointing out how many votive pictures speak of people being saved by dint of promises to gods from storms at sea, of which Diagoras responded that there are no pictures of those who were shipwrecked and drowned at sea anywhere. Then Cicero proceeds to set another example for having this ungodly guy on board, when Diagoras was on a ship in poor weather, and the crew thought they'd taken it upon themselves. He then wondered if a Diagoras on board the other ship was still out in the same sea. This and similar storeys adequately define the relation he was in to the traditional religion. It seems to be attested by the fact that, in ancient times in particular, he received the epithet of an atheist, because he held his own position with considerable steadfastness, and sometimes with more voice, humour, and audacity than was suggested. He may have disputed the gods 'overt intervention with the universe, but because he did not believe in the real existence of the Athenian gods and their divine actions, the Athenians may not have treated him as any other than an atheist.