I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.
Diana Morris, a Methodist evangelist, arrives in Heslop, a little town in Britain, in 1799. She lives with her close relative and uncle, Mr. and Mrs. Fraud, although she plans to return to the field before long, where she often dwells. Seth Bede, a nearby carpenter, adores her and loves to live with her, even offering to marry her. Seth's brother, Adam Bed, too lives in Heslop and works as a foreman at a carpentry workshop where he and his brother work. Adam adores the magnificence of a 17-year-old town girl called Haiti Tawny. Haiti, who is Mr. Poisser's nephew, lives with Balane and helps as much as she can with family chores. Seth and Adam's father, after drinking wine, suffocate in a waterway close to his home His mother, although, is disturbed. The neighborhood proprietor, Square Dona thorn, controls the area with a press clench hand. His grandson and beneficiary, Captain Donatorn, a part of the Regiment Armed force, broke his arm and lived with the squire. All the villagers regard and adore Captain Donatorn, who considers himself a courageous man. Captain Donaturon furtively teases with Haiti and begins with the assembly with Pazers. He inquires her when she will come to the squire's home, and when she passes, she oversees to be alone within the woods. When Captain Donnithorne meets Haiti within the woods, they are alone for the first time, and both are calm. Captain Donnithorne prods Haiti his numerous books, and he sobs. He puts his weapon around him, but he at that point rapidly startles and escapes with the insufficiency of his advance. Afterward, Captain Denithorn realized what he had done and chosen that Hetty had to see what had happened. He meets her on the way through the timberland and kisses her. The experience starts within the long summer and ends when Captain Donitone has cleared out to rejoin his regiment. Hetty accepts Captain Donissone will wed her and connect the brilliant society he dreams of. She doesn't cherish him at all but adores the riches and benefits that she would be entitled to when she marries him. Captain Donnithorne has a grown-up party and welcomes all individuals to the parish. Everyone comes and they all have an incredible time with feasts and diversions. Adam learned that Hettie was wearing a rocket that Captain Donnythorne gave him. She suspects that there is a mystery woman but concludes that it is outlandish to cover up such things from Poyer. Adam answered that he had to type in a letter to Hetty to let her know that the matter was over. Captain Donnithorne does so and Adam conveys the letter. Hetty is smashed, but after a while, she decides to wed Adam in order to get out of her current life. Adam offers and Hetty acknowledges. When Captain Donnithorne clears out, Hetty is pregnant, but neither of them know it. She chooses to try to find Captain Donnithorne since she cannot bear to find her disgrace for those who know her. She accepts Captain Donnithorne will help her, indeed if she feels that he will never be able to move completely away from the other woman. Hetty sets out to find Captain Donnithorne. After a challenging journey, she learns that he cleared out for Ireland. She heads to the house, with the purpose of going to Dinah, who, agreeing to her, will help her without judging her. Along the way, she gives birth to her child. Anguished, she takes the boy to the woods and buries him beneath a tree. Hetty takes off but cannot elude the sound of the boy crying.
As the Cold War was approaching between the Alliance and the Soviet Union, a Constrain officer, Stamp Bragg, cautioned his brother, Randy, that the atomic war was close. Stamp, who lives in Ohio, sends his spouse Helen and their children, Ben Franklin and Patten, to live with Randy in Florida's forlorn city. While they anticipate their entry, Randy cautions his neighbors, Henry and his companions, counting his sweetheart Gover. He began stocking up on nourishment and picked up Helen and her children at the air terminal, as the radio said pressures between the two superpowers were rising. The following morning, the war started, and atomic weapons annihilated all of Florida's major cities. Washington was annihilated, as well, and the current president became the lowest-ranking president within the cabinet. After losing all of its control and communication with the rest of the nation, Fort Ripos was totally disconnected. There's clutter within the little town. Randy's best companion, neighbor Wear Gunn, is beaten by addicts who seeking drugs from his clinic. A neighborhood police chief is murdered; Bank President Edgar Quisenberry kills himself. But Randy and his companions, all come to their home on Waterway Street at one time, oversee to preserve and keep up a kind of order in their lives. Randy gives clean water to his home and neighbors, and Henry cultivates various foods nearby a stream. Don continues to travel around the city to see patients and do the finest he can with constrained restorative care. The emergency emerges when numerous individuals realize that they are enduring from radiation harming caused by all the firing and bombings. Don and Randy are taking care of the emergency together. He collects gems and buries them in a lead-cased box with Porky Logan's body. When the townspeople deny burying the coffin, Randy waves the weapon and demands on doing it. Randy's specialty within the city is certainly regarded. A radio declaration broadcasts that previous Armed Officers ought to be capable for military law in remote locations, and Randy was one of those officers. In this manner, he distributed the proclaim and got to make decisions relating to law authorization. The same evening that he and Rib hitched, he assembled and chased a bunch of outlaws when they assaulted Dangan and pitilessly beat him. He and his companions slaughtered three outlaws and cut another, on the off chance that their neighbor Malachay Henry was shot dead. Cities battle amid the summer to outlive deficiencies. Randy tackles the emergency of salt deficiency. He combs the journal of the precursor who founded the city and finds a reference to an adjacent pool full of salt. Within a short time, government planes flew over the city and Randy's troopers and companions including Paul Hart along with helicopters, landed. He tells them that the nation is still attempting to restore fundamental administrations which it may be centuries or as soon as the sullied regions are cleaned up. It moreover confirms that Stamp kicked the bucket within the war, which implies that Pat Frank's choice not to incorporate dates in any of the occasions he portrays is one way of recommending that these occasions may happen in any minute. Be as it may, the story clearly unfurls in 1960, when the Cold War between the States and the Soviet Union was in full swing. There are references to the emergencies of 1957 and 58, which included a coup d’état in Iraq, an endeavor by the Soviet Union to square West Berlin, a US attack of Lebanon, and Soviet suppression in Hungary. All in all, there were many events happening at the same time.
Timaeus of Locri
Timaeus of Locri is a hero in Timaeus and Critias, two of Plato's dialogues. In both he seems to be a Pythagorean school philosopher. If a historical Timaeus of Locri ever existed, he might have flourished in the fifth century BC, but his historicity is uncertain as he exists only as a literary character in Plato; all other ancient sources are either based on Plato or are fictitious accounts. Throughout Plato's plays, Timaeus emerges as a rich aristocrat from Lokroi Epizephyrioi's Greek colonies, who had worked in high offices in his native town before moving to Athens, where Timaeus 'dialogue is being held. Plato does not specifically mark Timaeus a Pythagorean, but provides the reader with enough clues to conclude that. He appears competent in all fields of ancient philosophy, especially astronomy and natural philosophy. Historical presence of Timaeus in the antiquity was without doubt. Cicero states that Plato was travelling with Timaeus and other Pythagoreans to Italy to study. The account of this encounter prompted Macrobius, a late antiquity scholar, to believe that Timaeus may not have been in a face-to-face conversation with Socrates, who had been long dead by the time of Timaeus. Iamblichus mentions Timaeus among the Pythagorean school's most notable leaders. In his Lives and Thoughts of Eminent Thinkers, Diogenes Laërtius indicates that Timaeus 'character was founded upon the Pythagorean Philolaus. Specific parallels to Timaeus can be found in Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus; in Simplicius 'essay on Aristotle; and in Porphyry, where Timaeus discusses Pythagoras's house at Croton. Recent scholarship appears to throw off the historicity of Timaeus, viewing him as a fictional character created by Plato from characteristics known to him by the Pythagoreans, such as Archytas. The primary explanation for granting Timaeus the status of a literary novel is the lack of any knowledge that actually may not derive from Plato's dialogues. This has been pointed out as a counterargument that the bulk of characters mentioned in Plato's dialogues are in fact historical individuals. A work in Doric Greek entitled On the Origin of the Earth and the Soul, also named Timaeus Locrus after its supposed creator, begins by claiming that Locri's Timaeus claimed the following and goes on to summarise the ideas that Timaeus supports in Timaeus's Plato. The novel has been thoroughly preserved, in over fifty copies. This is largely in line with Plato; this omits the Theory of Forms in particular. On the earth and the soul was first mentioned in the second century AD sources and in antiquity its authenticity was not questioned. The novel was also believed to have been a significant source of dialogue for Plato; a legend going back to the third century BC claimed that Plato's Timaeus was plagiarised from a Pythagorean text, and this was associated with the Timaeus Locrus. Modern philology has shown that On the Earth and the Soul is a pseudepigraph from sometime from the early 1st century BC to the early 1st century AD and is based on Plato's Timaeus, rather than the other way around. The Pseudo-Timaeus uses a condensed method of logic and analysis, offering conclusions rather than arguments and omitting any dialogue, suggesting that perhaps it was meant as a description of the famously complicated original for use in a classroom context. While it may have emerged in part as a series of lecture notes to the original Platonic, it appears to omit difficult parts of the Timaeus rather than include explanations. Without knowledge of Plato's work, some of Pseudo-Timaeus 'theses are very hard to grasp. On the Earth and the Soul contains traces of middle Platonist theories and terminology; in fact, it parallels works by Eudorus of Alexandria and Philo, making it possible that the author resided in Alexandria and was acquainted with the philosophy of Eudorus. Through integrating ideas from Hellenistic Astronomy and Medicine, he modernised the natural philosophy of Plato's Timaeus.
Thales of Miletus
Thales of Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor, was a Greek mathematician, astronomer, and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus. He had been one of Greece's Seven Sages. Some, most especially Aristotle, considered him the first philosopher in Greek history, and he is generally traditionally regarded as the first person known to have entertained and participated in scientific philosophy in Western civilization. As a predecessor to modern science, Thales is known for breaking from using myths to describe the earth and the cosmos, and then describing real events and phenomena by theories and hypotheses. While describing reality as deriving from a unity of all based on the presence of a single supreme material, nearly all the other pre-Socratic thinkers preceded him, instead of using mythological explications. Aristotle believed him to be the father of the Ionian School and confirmed Thales 'theory that a single material element was the original concept of existence and the essence of matter: water. In algebra, Thales used geometry to measure pyramid heights and ship's reach from land. He is the first known person to use geometry-applied deductive reasoning by deriving four corollaries from the theorem of Thales. He is the first known person to whom has been credited a mathematical discovery. The dates of Thales 'existence are not entirely known, but a few datable events listed in the sources loosely determine the dates. According to Herodotus, Thales predicted the solar eclipse of May 28, 585 BC. The chronicle of Apollodorus of Athens cites Diogenes Laërtius as saying that Thales died at the age of 78 after the 58th Olympiad and attributed his death to heat exhaustion while attending the games. Thales was presumably born in mid-620s BC in the town of Miletus. Writing during the 2nd century BC, the ancient writer Apollodorus of Athens believed Thales was born in the year 625 BC. In the fifth century BC, Herodotus identified Thales as "a Phoenician by distant descent." Tim Whitmarsh noted that Thales considered water as the primary concern, and his name may have originated from this situation as thal is the Phoenician term for moisture. According to the later historian Diogenes Laërtius, in his third century AD Lives of the Philosophers, quotes Herodotus, Duris, and Democritus, all of whom agree that "Thales was the son of Examyas and Cleobulina, and belongs to the Phoenician Thelidae. Their titles are the Carian and Greek tribal, respectively. Diogenes then notes that "Most authors, however, portray him as a native of Miletus and of a respectable family. However, his supposed mother Cleobulina was also identified as his companion. Diogenes then provides further contradictory reports: one that Thales married and either fathered a son or adopted a nephew of the same name; the other that he never married, saying his mother as you. Plutarch had mentioned this storey earlier: Solon visited Thales and asked him why he stayed single; Thales said he didn't like the thought of having to think about kids. Nevertheless he adopted his nephew Cybisthus many years later, desperate for love. He has been said to be approximately the technical counterpart of a typical option trader. It is thought that Thales visited Egypt at one point in his career, where he studied geometry. Diogenes Laërtius wrote that Thales described the Milesian colonists as Athenian. A novel, with various versions, relates how Thales, through weather forecast, received riches from an olive harvest. In one storey, after forecasting the weather and a good harvest for a given year, he bought all the olive presses in Miletus. Another version of the storey has been clarified by Aristotle that Thales had rented presses at a discount in advance and could rent them out at a high price when demand peaked, despite his forecast of an unusually successful harvest. This first version of the storey would be the first historically known possible development and usage, while the second version would be the first historically documented choice development and use.
The eloquent Euphrades nicknamed Themistius was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher. He flourished in the reigns of Constance II, Julian, Jovian, Valens, Gratian, and Theodosius I; and he enjoyed the respect, despite their numerous differences, of all those emperors, and the fact that he was not a Christian. In 355 Constantius submitted himself to the senate, and in 384 he became prefect of Constantinople on the election of Theodosius. Of his numerous works, thirty-three orations, as well as various observations and epitomes of Aristotle's works have come down to us. He was born and taught at Phasis, Paphlagonia. Apart from a brief period in Italy, he lived the remainder of his time in Constantinople. He was the son of Eugene, who was also a distinguished philosopher, and is mentioned in Themistius's prayers more than once. Themistius was trained in philosophy by his father, and he dedicated himself primarily to Aristotle, though he also studied Pythagoreanism and Platonism. Although still a young adult he wrote observations on Aristotle, which were made public without his permission, which earned a high respect for him. He had passed through his childhood in Asia Minor and Syria. He first encountered Constance II when, in the eleventh year of his reign, 347, the emperor visited Ancyra in Galatia, on which time Themistius gave the first of his surviving orations, Peri Philanthropias. He moved to Constantinople not long after, where he taught philosophy for twenty years. He was elected a senator in 355; and the letter persists, in which Constantius introduces him to the Senate and speaks both of Themistius himself and of his father in the best possible words. We do have the prayer of gratitude that Themistius presented to the Constantinople Senate in response to the letter of the emperor early in 356. In 357, in Constantinople's senate, he recited two prayers in memory of Constance, supposed to be delivered to the emperor himself, who was then in Rome. Constantius granted him the privilege of a bronze statue as a reward; and by a decree that still remained, he was promoted to the praetorian rank in 361. Themistius may have served as Constantinople's proconsul in 358–359; he was the last to hold that office, until the title was promoted to urban prefect status. Constantius died in 361; but Themistius undoubtedly maintained the favour, as a scholar and non-Christian, of Julian, who spoke of him as the world's best senator, and the first scholar of his day. The Suda notes that Julian declared Constantinople's Themistius prefect; but this is disproved by Themistius 'speech when he was finally assigned to that office under Theodosius. Shortly before Julian's death in 363, in a letter to Themistius, Themistius delivered a prayer in his memory that no longer remains but is alluded to at some length by Libanius. In 364 he went to meet Jovian at Dadastana, on the frontier of Galatia and Bithynia, as one of the Senate Members, and to grant upon him the Consulate; and on this occasion he gave a prayer which he subsequently reiterated at Constantinople, in which he asserts absolute freedom of faith to follow every religion. In the same year, in the presence of the latter, he gave an oration in Constantinople in memory of Valentinian I and Valens 'accession. His next prayer is addressed to Valens, congratulating him on his June 366 triumph over Procopius, and interceding for some of the rebels; it was delivered in 367. In the next year, in the second campaign of the Gothic War, he followed Valens to the Danube and gave a congratulatory oration on his Quinquennalia, 368, before the emperor at Marcianopolis. His next prayers are to the young Valentinian II on his consulship, 369, and to the Constantinople Council, in the presence of Valens, in memory of the Goths 'unity, 370. On March 28, 373, on the tenth year of his rule, he delivered a congratulatory letter to Valens on the arrival of the Emperor. It was also during Valens 'time in Syria that Themistius delivered an oration to him persuading him to end his persecution of the Catholic community.
Theodorus the Atheist
Theodorus the Atheist, of Cyrene, was a Cyrenaic school philosopher and one of the well-known philosophers of the ancient time. He lived in Alexandria and Greece before finishing his days in his native Cyrene region. As a Cyrenaic philosopher, he taught that the aim of life was to achieve happiness and escape sorrow, and that wisdom resulted in the former as well as ignorance in the latter. Yet his supposed conservatism was his primary claim to fame. He was generally called the atheist by ancient scholars. Theodorus was a pupil of Aristippus the Younger, the elder's brother and Aristippus, who was more celebrated. He saw a number of philosophers 'lectures beside Aristippus; including Anniceris, and Dionysius the dialectician, Zeno of Citium, and Pyrrho. He was banished from Cyrene, but for what cause it is not stated; and it is from his saying recorded on this occasion, "Men of Cyrene, you do ill in banishing me from Libya to Greece, as well as from being a disciple of Aristippus, that it is inferred that he was a native of Cyrene. There is no related account of his subsequent history; but his anecdotes indicate that he was in Athens. Nevertheless, Demetrius Phalereus 'influence allegedly protected him; and this event will thus possibly be located at Athens, 317–307 BC, within the ten years of Demetrius' rule. Since Theodorus was exiled from Athens and was later in Ptolemy's service in Egypt, it is not unlikely that he joined Demetrius's overthrow and exile. The account cited by Diogenes Laërtius of Amphicrates of Athens, that he was condemned to drink hemlock and so died, is beyond doubt a error. While at Ptolemy's command, Theodorus was sent to Lysimachus on an ambassador, whom he insulted by the expression of his remarks. Several ancient authors praised one reaction he made to a crucifixion challenge that Lysimachus had used. He evidently returned from the Lysimachus court or camp to that of Ptolemy. We also read about his visit to Corinth with a number of his followers, but during his stay in Athens this was probably just a brief visit. He long returned to Cyrene, and stayed there, says Diogenes Laërtius, with Ptolemy's stepson Magas, who ruled Cyrene as viceroy for fifty years, then as king. Theodorus's days at Cyrene presumably ended. Various characteristic anecdotes of Theodorus are preserved from which he appears to have been a man of keen and ready wit. Theodorus was the founder of a church, called Theodoreans after him. Theodorus 'views, as can be learned from Diogenes Laërtius' perplexed comment, were of the Cyrenaic school. He explained that the true end of human life is to attain happiness and escape sorrow, and that wisdom is the former, and ignorance is the latter. He has described the good as prudence and fairness, and the bad as the opposite. Pleasure and pain were nevertheless oblivious. He made fun of friendship and loyalty, and said his country was the universe. He taught that nothing in stealing, treason, or sacrilege was necessarily disgraceful if one defied public opinion, which had been established by fools 'permission. They blamed Theodorus for atheism. He has excluded all views supporting the gods, Laërtius claims, but some opponents question that he was an atheist or merely denying the existence of common religion deities. The accusation of atheism is backed by Atheus 'popular classification, by the authority of Cicero, Laërtius, Pseudo-Plutarch, Sextus Empiricus, and some Christian writers; although others talk of him as denying traditional theology alone. He wrote other works on his sect's teachings as well as on other topics according to the Suda.
Theon of Smyrna
Theon of Smyrna was a Greek mathematician and philosopher whose works were highly influenced by the Pythagorean school of thought. His surviving On Mathematics Useful to Plato's Interpretation is an introductory Greek mathematics study. About Theon about Smyrna's life, little is learned. A bust made at his death, and dedicated by his friend, was discovered in Smyrna, and it dates to about 135 CE by art historians. Ptolemy refers to a Theon, who made discoveries at Alexandria, many times in his Almagest, although it is unclear if he refers to Theon of Smyrna. For him the lunar impact crater is called Theon Senior. Theon has written many articles on the works of the mathematicians and thinkers of the period, including studies on Plato's theory. Any of these plays go missing. The one big survivor is Plato's On Mathematics Helpful to Grasp. A second dissertation has recently been found in an Arabic translation on the order in which to read Plato's works. His On Mathematics Useful to Plato's Learning is not a commentary on Plato's works but instead a practical textbook for a mathematics undergraduate. It is not so much a ground-breaking work as a compilation piece to already existing theories at the moment. Its position as a collection of information already known and its comprehensive citation of earlier sources is part of what makes it worthwhile. The first section of this work is divided into two sections, the first of which concerns the topics of numbers and the second of which is about music and harmony. The first part, on mathematics, focuses more on what is more widely known today as number theory: odd numbers, even numbers, prime numbers, ideal numbers, abundant numbers, and other similar properties. This includes a 'side and diameter numbers' list, the Pythagorean process for a series of possible rational approximations to the square root of 2, whose denominators are Pell numbers. It is also one of the roots of our information about the origins of the Doubling the cube classical problem. The second segment, on music, is divided into three parts: numeral music, instrumental music, and spheres music. Number music is a study of mood and harmony using averages, proportions, and means; the instrumental music sections are concerned not with rhythm but with intervals and consonances in the manner of the work of Pythagoras. Theon defines intervals by the degree of their consonance: that is, by the consistency of their relations. He speaks of them even by their isolation from each other. The third section, he considered the most significant on the music of the cosmos, and ordered it to come after the appropriate context provided in the earlier sections. Theon cites a poem by Alexander of Ephesus that assigns different pitches to each planet in the chromatic scale, an concept that would maintain its influence for a millennium later. The second is about astronomy. The content of the work, however, prompted Otto Neugebauer to blame him for not thoroughly recognising the material which he was attempting to address. Theon was a brilliant harmony philosopher and his treatise deals with semitones. There are many semitones used in Greek music but two are very typical in this type. Pythagoreans in those days did not depend on irrational numbers to grasp harmonies and the logarithm for these semitones did not suit their theory. Their logarithms did not result in irrational numbers, but Theon was going into this debate. He agreed that "one should show that" it is not possible to split the tone of value 9/8 into equal parts and hence it is a number itself. Many Pythagoreans acknowledged that irrational numbers existed, but did not believe in using them because they were unnatural and not positive integer numbers.
Theophrastus, a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the Peripatetic School counterpart to Aristotle. At a young age he came to Athens and initially enrolled in the school of Plato. Upon Plato's passing, he was close to Aristotle who in his works took Theophrastus. As Aristotle escaped from Athens Theophrastus took over as the Lyceum's head. For thirty-six years theophrastus ruled over the Peripatetic Academy, during which time the academy was thriving greatly. For his works on plants he is sometimes considered the founder of botany. After his death he was honoured with a lavish funeral by the Athenians. His replacement as the school's head was Lampsacus Strato. Theophrastus 'interests were broad and ranged from biology and physics to ethics and metaphysics. His two extant botanical works, and On the Causes of Plants, were a significant influence on science of the Renaissance. On Moral Characters, On Sense Perception, On Rocks, and Fragments on Physics and Metaphysics also remain surviving plays. He studied grammar and language in philosophy, and continued the study of Aristotle on logic. He often found space to be the pure organisation and location of bodies, time to be an incident of motion, and motion as a necessary consequence of all operations. In philosophy, he saw pleasure as both dependent on external forces and morality. Diogenes Laërtius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers provided much of the biographical detail on Theophrastus, writing more than four hundred years after Theophrastus's death. He came originally from Lesbos, Eresos. His name was Tyrtamus, but later he was known by the pseudonym Theophrastus, which Aristotle has given him, it is said, to signify the elegance of his speech. Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Lampsacus Strato. He travelled to Athens, where he may have taught under Plato, after taking training in philosophy from one Alcippus at Lesbos. He and Aristotle became friends, and Plato died. In his self-imposed exile from Athens theophrastus may have followed Aristotle. When Aristotle travelled on Lesbos to Mytilene in 345, at Theophrastus 'suggestion it is quite possible that he did so. It would appear that it was on Lesbos that Aristotle and Theophrastus started their natural science studies, with Aristotle studying animals and plants studying theophrastus. Since Aristotle was appointed mentor to Alexander the Great in 343, theophrastus presumably followed Aristotle to Macedonia. About 335 BC, Theophrastus travelled to Athens with Aristotle where Aristotle started to lecture at the Lyceum. When the anti-Macedonian feeling forced Aristotle to flee Athens after Alexander's death, Theophrastus remained behind as head of the Peripatetic Academy, a position he continued to hold after Aristotle's death in 322. In his will, Aristotle made him guardian of his sons, including Nicomachus, with whom he had been close. Similarly, Aristotle legated his library and the originals of his works to him, and named him his successor at the Lyceum. Eudemus of Rhodes also had certain rights to this position and it is said that Aristoxenus had resented Aristotle's decision. He studied general history but his primary interests in natural history were to follow Aristotle's labours. This is evidenced not only by a number of treatises on particular zoological subjects, of which only parts exist besides the names, but also by his books On Minerals, his Enquiry into Plants, and On the Causes of Plants. The Enquiry into Plants was initially ten volumes, nine of which survive. The research is organised into a structure whereby plants are categorised according to their processing types, positions, proportions, and functional uses such as meats, juices, herbs, etc. The first book deals with plant parts; the second book deals with plant reproduction and sowing times and methods; the third, fourth and fifth books devoted to trees, their forms, locations and practical applications; the sixth book deals with shrubs and spiny plants; the seventh book deals with herbs; the eighth book deals with plants growing edible seeds.
Socrates was a ancient Greek philosopher credited with being one of the founders of Western philosophy, and the first moral philosopher in the Western philosophical school of thought. An mysterious figure, he made no writings, and is known mainly after his lifetime by the accounts of classical authors, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon. Other examples include the contemporary Sphettos Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines. Aristophanes, a playwright, is the first contemporary author to have written plays that reference Socrates during the lifetime of Socrates, while a fragment of the Ion of Chios 'Travel Journal contains valuable details about the youth of Socrates. Plato's dialogues are among Socrates 'most detailed accounts to exist from the period, and has made Socrates renowned for his contributions to the fields of ethics and epistemology. It is this Platonic Socrates who gives the ideas of Socratic irony and the Socratic system, or elenchus, its name. Nevertheless, doubts arise about the difference in his dialogues between the real-life Socrates and Plato's depiction of Socrates. In later antiquity and contemporary times, Socrates exercised a heavy influence on the philosophers. Socrates 'appearances in sculpture, fiction, and popular culture have made him one of the most well known figures of Western intellectual history. Because Socrates has not written down any of his thoughts, indirect sources provide the most details about his life and philosophy. These sources 'at times conflicting existence is known as the Socratic matter, or the Socratic problem. As for finding the real-life Socrates, the challenge is that, aside from Xenophon, older sources are mainly metaphysical or dramatic texts. There are no simple accounts that deal with his own time and place, contemporary with Socrates. A corollary of this is that documents referencing Socrates do not always appear to be historically reliable, and instead are biassed. Those persecuting and convicting Socrates, for example, also left no legacy. Historians thus face the difficulty of reconciling the different facts from the current texts in an effort to provide a clear and reliable account of the life and work of Socrates. The outcome of such an endeavour is not inherently, but constant, practical. The persona of Socrates as seen in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium corresponds with other references to the degree that it seems possible to focus on the Platonic Socrates as a reflection of the real Socrates as he existed in history, as shown in the dialogues. However, at the same time, other academics agree that Plato, being a literary genius, took his avowedly brightened-up interpretation of "Socrates" far above what the actual Socrates was likely to have done or said in any plays. As a historian, Xenophon is also a more credible witness to the historical Socrates. It is a matter of much discussion at any given stage about which Socrates it is that Plato defines. The year of Socrates 'birth mentioned is an estimated date or approximation provided that the dating of something in ancient history often depends on claims resulting from individuals' incorrect era floruit. Diogenes Laërtius claimed that the birth date of Socrates was the sixth day of Thargelion, the day the city was destroyed by the Athenians. Contemporary records state that he was born not much later than sometime after the year 471, his date of birth varies from 470 to 469 BC or from 469 to 468 BC during the number of years. Socrates served the role of hoplite for a while, engaging in the Peloponnesian War, a war that lasted intermittently over a duration of 431-404 BC. Some of Plato's dialogues apply to the military service offered by Socrates. Socrates lived through the transition from the height of the Athenian empire to its collapse, with Sparta and her allies defeating in the Peloponnesian War. During a time when Athens was struggling to reform and rebound from their defeat, the Athenian people may have expressed questions about democracy as an efficient system of government.
Strato of Lampsacus
Strato of Lampsacus was a Peripatetic philosopher, and the Lyceum's third director after Theophrastus 'death. In fact, he dedicated himself to the study of natural philosophy, and he expanded the naturalistic aspects of Aristotle's thinking to such an degree that he rejected the need for an actual deity to create the cosmos, choosing to put the world government under the unconscious power of nature alone. Strato was born at Lampsacus between 340 and 330 BC, son of Arcesilaus or Arcesius. Throughout his teaching time in Lampsacus he may have met Epicurus between 310 and 306. He entered the school of Aristotle in Athens, after which he went to Egypt as a tutor to Ptolemy, where he also instructed Samos Aristarchus. After Theophrastus 'death he returned to Athens, replacing him as head of the Lyceum. He died between 270 and 268 a. C. sometime. Strato particularly dedicated himself to the study of natural science, from which he received the name Physicus. Although speaking favourably of his talents, Cicero faults him for neglecting the most important aspect of philosophy, that which concerns virtue and morality, and for giving himself over to studying the world. In Diogenes Laërtius 'lengthy list of his books, some of the titles are on subjects of moral philosophy, but the vast majority belong to the physical science section. None of his works survive, and his opinions are known only from the fragmentary accounts that later authors retain. Strato emphasised the need for detailed study, and as an example of this, he used the observation of how water flowing from a sputum split into various droplets as evidence of rapidly falling bodies. While Aristotle described time as the numbered aspect of motion, Strato argued that because motion and time are constant while number is distinct, time has an life independent of motion, or simply that time was the quantitative aspect of motion, rather than its numerical aspect. In his commentary on Aristotle's Mechanics, Simplicius conserves the following quote. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the name of Strato signified nothing. And his reputation unexpectedly became popular in the 17th century due to the perceived parallels between his philosophy and Spinoza's pantheistic views. Ralph Cudworth described Strato's method as one of four forms of atheism in his 1678 assault on atheism, and in doing so coined the term hylozoism to characterise any scheme where primitive matter is filled with a life power. Pierre Bayle, who embraced Strato and 'Stratonism' as core elements of his own philosophy, arrived at those ideas. Stratonism was the most important ancient analogue to Spinozism in its Continuity of Pensées diverses, published in 1705. To Bayle, Strato has done everything to fulfil a predetermined pattern of need, with no inherent good or evil in the world; with wisdom or purpose, the cosmos was not treated as a living entity, so there is no other supernatural force except itself. He was dismissive of Aristotle's idea of position as an enviromental surface, choosing to see it as the area filled by something. He also denied the presence of the fifth dimension in Aristotle. He stressed the involvement of air or spirit in the soul's functioning; soul-activities were clarified by pneuma extending from the 'ruling portion' found throughout the head across the body. Most feeling is felt not in the extremities of the body, but in the governing portion of the soul; most feeling requires thought, and no thought is extracted from sensation. He rejected the soul was eternal, and challenged Plato's 'proofs' in his Phaedo. Strato assumed that all matter consisted of tiny particles but he rejected the idea of empty space by Democritus. Vacuum does occur, in Strato's opinion, but only in the empty spaces between imperfectly fitted particles; space is still filled with some form of matter. Such a theory allowed for anomalies like gravity, and permitted the passage of light and heat into otherwise solid bodies.
Speusippus was a philosopher of ancient Greek origin. Speusippus was the sibling Potone's nephew to Plato. After Plato's death, c.348 BC, Speusippus inherited the Academy, at the age of 60, and for the next eight years remained its lead. However he handed the chair to Xenocrates following a stroke. Though the Academy successor to Plato, Speusippus also diverged from the teachings of Plato. He dismissed Plato's Theory of Forms, and although Plato had identified the Good with the primary concept, Speusippus believed that the Good was only secondary. He also argued that there is no adequate knowledge of any of these Everything without understanding all the distinctions which distinguish it from everything things. Speusippus was a native of Athens, and he belongs to the deme of Myrrhinus, son of Eurymedon and Potone, Plato's niece. Plato's pseudonymous Thirteenth Letter says Speusippus had his daughter married. We learn little of his life until he accompanied his uncle Plato on his third voyage to Syracuse, where he showed considerable talent and prudence, particularly in his friendly relations with Dion. Even Timon acknowledges his intrinsic worth, although he can only pour the more unsparing criticism on his intelligence. The storey of his sudden fits of rage, vanity, and debauchery is possibly taken from a rather impure source: Athenaeus and Diogenes Laërtius, with the help of Speusippus, can hardly say anything more as legitimacy for them than the violence in some bogus letters of Dionysius the Younger, who was exiled by Dion. Having been chosen as Academy chief by Plato as his successor, he was just eight years at the head of the college. He died, it appears, from a lingering paralytic illness, probably a stroke. He was replaced by Xenocrates as head of education. Diogenes Laërtius provides us a list of some of the names of Speusippus's various dialogues and commentaries, but is of no use in deciding their contents, and the snippets that other authors provide us with only a little extra. Speusippus was interested in putting together the same issues in their metaphysical study, and in deriving and setting down concepts of genera and species: for he was interested in what the various sciences had in common and how they could be related. He thus began the threefold division of philosophy into Dialectics, Ethics, and Physics, for which Plato had laid the foundation, without losing sight of the reciprocal relation between these three divisions of philosophy; For he maintained that no one could arrive at a full definition that didn't know all the discrepancies that divided a thing that was to be described from the others. Moreover, with Plato, he distinguished between the object of thought and the object of sensual experience, the intellect of reason and sensual experience. However, he attempted to demonstrate how experience can be picked up and converted into awareness, by believing an experience that lifts itself to the rank of awareness by involvement in logical reality. By this he seems to have recognised an immediate mode of conception; for, in favour of this understanding, he resorted to the fact that artistic talent is based not on sensual behaviour but on an unerring ability to differentiate between its objects, that is, on their logical vision. Plato's Theory of Forms was dismissed by Speusippus; while Plato differentiated between ideal numbers and mathematical numbers, Speusippus dismissed the ideal numbers and hence the concepts. In distinguishing the forms, he sought to decide the concept of reality more precisely, the difference between which he believed to derive from the difference between the concepts on which they are based. Therefore he separated objects of number, scale, and essence, while Plato had related them to the ideal numbers as distinct entities.
Chrysippus Soli was a philosopher from Stoic-Greek descent. He was a native of Soli, Cilicia but migrated as a young man to Athens for the purpose of furthering his schooling and training and it was there that he became Stoic school pupil of Cleanthes. Chrysippus was the third president of the college after Cleanthes died, heading the teachings around 230 BC. Chrysippus, a prolific writer, broadened the central teachings of the school founder, Zeno of Citium, gaining him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus excelled in logic, information theory, philosophy, physics etc. He developed an original philosophy of propositional logic in order to help understand the essence of the universe and humanity's place within it. He adhered to a deterministic vision of life but still saw in thought and behaving a space for personal expression. Freud concluded that ethics relied on knowledge of the universe's essence and provided a technique to extirpate the unruly feelings that haunt the soul and destroy it. He pioneered the rise of Stoicism in the Greek and Roman culture as one of the most influential intellectual trends of the ages. Few literary plays of his survived but as fragments. Sections of some of his works have been recently discovered in the Herculaneum papyri. Chrysippus, son of Tarsus Apollonius, was born in Soli, Cilicia. He was short of height and he is reputed to have trained as a athlete over long distances. While still young, although confiscated to the King's treasury, he lost his vast inherited fortune and soon after he wanted to travel to Athens where he became a Cleanthes student who was at the time the president of Stoic Academy. He completed the courses which were given at the Platonic Academy by Arcesilaus and his successor Lacydes. With passion and great excitement Chrysippus immersed himself into the study of Stoic philosophy. His apprenticeship was very respected and popular among his contemporaries. He was noted for intellectual audacity and self-confidence, and his emphasis on his own abilities was shown, inter alia, in the question he was supposed to have made to Cleanthes: Show me the rules, and I will find the proofs myself. After Cleanthes died, in around 230 BC, he succeeded Cleanthes as head of the Stoic school. Chrysippus was an incredibly prolific blogger. He was seen in his utterances as abstract and contradictory, and in his manner as casual, but his talents were highly respected and he came to be considered as the school's pre-eminent authority. He died at Olympiad 143, at the age of 73. Diogenes Laërtius gives two distinct views on his death. His nephew Aristocreon built a monument upon the Kerameikos in his honour. Chrysippus had replaced his friend, Zeno of Tarsus, as head of the Stoic academy. Chrysippus had a long and fruitful career combating the Academy's threats and intended to protect Stoicism from previous assaults as well as from any potential future violence. He took and crystallised the philosophies of Zeno and Cleanthes into what became the central form of stoicism. He extended Stoics 'practical teachings and their theory of reality, and gave much of their formal logic. Chrysippus learned a lot about reasoning, and developed a concept reasoning system. Aristotle's word sense had been for words such as Socrates or people-to-people interrelations. Stoic logic, on the other hand, was about propositional interrelations. Although earlier Megarian dialectics had functioned in this area and Aristotle's pupils had been studying imaginary syllogisms, it was Chrysippus who transformed these ideas into a coherent system of propositional logic.