Favorinus of Arelate was a Roman intersex sophist and philosopher who lived during the Sophisticated Time of Hadrian and Second. He was of Gaulish origin and born in Arelate. He received excellent education, first in Gallia Narbonensis and then in Rome, and at an early age started his lifelong journeys to Greece, Italy and the East. Favorinus possessed immense intellect, coupled with excellent oratorical skills, which in both Athens and Rome took him to eminence. He was on good terms with Plutarch, Herodes Atticus, to whom he left his library in Rome, Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and Emperor Hadrian. His chief adversary was the Polemon of Smyrna, whom he fiercely opposed in his later years. Favorinus eventually showed, after Hadrian had insulted him in an speech in which the sophist might possibly have challenged his opponent, that it was stupid to contest the thirty legions 'master's logic. As the Athenians, claiming to share the emperor's disappointment with the sophist, pulled down a monument that they had erected for him, Favorinus speculated that the hemlock would have been spared if only Socrates had a monument in Athens. Hadrian banished Favorinus to the island of Chios sometime in the 130s. Rehabilitated in 138 with the ascension of Antoninus Pius, Favorinus returned to Rome where he resumed his career as an author and teacher of upper class pupils. Among his students were Alexander Peloplaton, who later would instruct and serve under Marcus Aurelius, and Herodes Atticus, who also educated Marcus Aurelius and to whom Favorinus bequeathed his library. His year of death is unknown, but in his 80's he appears to have survived, and presumably died about 160. Hofeneder notes that Favorinus is comparable to the "Celtic philosopher" explaining the idea of Ogmios by Lucianus. It is likely that the Eunuch Lucian was based on Favorinus. We only keep a few fragments of Favorinus's very separate works, preserved by Aulus Gellius, Diogenes Laërtius, Philostratus, Galen, and in the Suda, Pantodape Historia and Apomnemoneumata. As a philosopher, Favorinus considers himself an Intellectual Skeptic; his most important work in this sense appears to have been the ten-volume Pyrrhonean Tropes, in which he attempts to show that Aenesidemus 'Pyrrhonist Ten Modes has been useful to someone who wants to serve in the courts. Galen dedicated himself to a polemic against Favorinus in "De optima doctrina," questioning the Favorinus argument that the best advice is the assertion in which one talks in favour of opposite sides of each particular question. Galen's treatise states that Favorinus wrote a often named "Plutarch" work "On the Intellectual Temperament" and a work against Epictetus entitled "Against Epictetus," playing one of Plutarch's slaves, Onesimus, debating with Epictet. Favorinus wrote "On the Cataleptic Phantasy," in which he is said to have dismissed cataleptic probability, the core notion in Stoic epistemology. Favorinus is described as a eunuch per birth. Polemon of Laodicea, author of a physiognomy treatise, described Favorinus as a eunuch born without testicles, beardless and with a high pitched, thin voice, while Philostratos described him as hermaphrodit. Hence Favorinus is known by Mason and others as possessing an intersex attribute. Retief and Cilliers suggest the existing meanings suit Reifenstein's syndrome. He was a congénit eunuch living in Rome, Athens, Corinth and Ephesus. He was tutor of Herodes Atticus, Gellius, and Fronto, and was a colleague of Plutarch. He held high office while in Rome under Emperor Hadrian, but was then exiled to Chios until the end of Hadrian's rule, when he returned to Rome and regained his rank. Favorinus wrote discourses, memoirs and declamations on philosophy. In 1931, the Vatican printed his serene essay On Exile from a Greek papyrus. To his other plays there are only fragments.