Creative Writing

Creative Writing

I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

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  • Creative Writing
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    Hippasus

    Hippasus

    Hippasus of Metapontum was a Pythagorean-descendant philosopher. Little is known about his life or beliefs but his is often due to the exploration of the existence of arbitrary numbers. It is said that the Pythagoreans were stunned at the discovery of crazy figures, and Hippasus is thought to have drowned at sea, probably as a penalty from the gods for disclosing this. Nevertheless, the few ancient texts that mention this tale either don't call Hippasus or say Hippasus to drown because he discovered how to build a dodecahedron inside a shell. None of the ancient writers specifically ascribe Hippasus to seeking irrationality. No history of Hippasus is known. He may have lived in the late 5th century BC around a century after Pythagorean times. Metapontum in Italy is commonly referred to as his birthplace, although some claim that Metapontum is his birthplace, according to Iamblichus, while others suggest Croton is his nearby city. Hippasus is mentioned in the list of Pythagoreans of every town in Iamblichus under the city of Sybaris. Aristotle speaks of Hippasus as believing the fire element to be the origin of all things; and in this regard Sextus Empiricus contrasts him with the Pythagoreans, for he regarded the ark to be organic, whereas they believed it to be incorporeal, namely, the number. Diogenes Laërtius tells us that Hippasus believed that "there is a definite time that the changes in the universe take to their maximum, and that the cosmos is small and still in motion." According to one argument, Hippasus did not leave any books, according to another he was the author of the Mystical Essay, written to refute Pythagore. Hippasus is also credited with the discovery of irrational numbers that led to him drowning at sea. Pythagoreans assumed that the numbers should be interpreted as the integer ratio, and the discovery of arbitrary numbers is said to have shocked them. Nevertheless, there is confusion about the evidence pertaining to Hippasus 'observation. Pappus explicitly notes that the Pythagorean school arose in the interpretation of irrational numbers, and that the man who first discovered the facts died by drowning. Iamblichus gives an inadequate selection of articles. He explains in one storey how a Pythagorean was merely expelled for divulging the presence of the irrational; but then he cites the storey of the Pythagorean who died at sea because he thought the standard dodecahedron was formed in the universe. In another storey he says how it was Hippasus who died at sea for betraying the dodecahedron system and taking credit for it himself; but that same punishment is imposed in another store on the Pythagorean who exposed mad intelligence. Iamblichus states specifically that drowning at sea was a penalty on the part of gods for impious actions. These accounts are generally brought together to ascribe Hippasus to the discovery of irrationals, but it's unclear whether he did or not. In theory, the storeys can be combined, as random numbers can be identified during dodecahedron construction. Irrationality can be readily seen by continuous simultaneous subtraction in the Golden Ratio of the regular pentagon. Many scholars credited Hippasus to discovering the irrationality of u2 during the early twentieth century. The theory is a proof of contradiction, or redutio ad absurdum, which shows that if the diagonal of a square is meant to be proportionate to the foot, then it would be both odd and even the same number. In the hands of new writers the combination of mysterious old accounts and recent guesswork has often grown into a much more emphatic and lively storey. Most scholars suggest Hippasus is making his discovery while embarking on a yacht, as a result of which his Pythagorean shipmates toss him overboard.
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    Hipparchia of Maroneia

    Hipparchia of Maroneia

    Hipparchia was a Cynic scholar from Maroneia, and Crates was a relative of Thebes. She was born in Maroneia but her family moved to Athens where Hipparchia came into contact with Crates, the most influential Cynic philosopher in Greece at the time. She fell in love with him and married him, prompting disapproval by her parents. She went on living a life of Cynic poverty on the streets of Athens with her friends. Nothing survives from her own political beliefs, but her power lies in the background of her personality, like most cynics, choosing a way of living that was commonly considered unethical to the respectable women of the time. The tale of her addiction to Cans, and her denial of conventional values, became a popular theme for later readers. Elevated at Hipparchia c. Thrace, in Maroneia, 350 BC. Her family moved to Athens where Metrocles was a pupil of the Cynic scholar Crates of Thebes, Hipparchia's uncle. Hipparchia fell in love with Crates and developed such a passion for him that she told her parents if they refused to allow her to marry him she would kill herself. They begged Crates to dissuade her, and he stood before her, took off his feet, and said, "This is the bridegroom, and this is his possession. Nevertheless, Hipparchia was very content with this; she pursued the Cynic life, wearing the same clothing she did, and posing in public with him everywhere. Crates called their union "dog-coupling" It is said they lived in the stoas and porticoes of Athens, and both Sextus Empiricus and Apuleius, the Latin-speaking scholar, wrote accounts of their having sex, publicly, in the broad daylight. While this may have been consistent with the shamelessness of Cynic, the mere fact this Hipparchia adopted male clothes and existed on an equal basis with her husband would have sufficed to shake Athenian civilization. She is also the first woman to have her own entry into the 82 thinkers in Diogenes Laërtius 'Lives and Thoughts and she continued to fascinate later novels. Most letters detail events, which may be based on actual anecdotes that existed at the time, as much of the Cynic epistles. In two of the letters we are told that Hipparchia sent Crates a robe she'd made. She claims, though, that she may have played the part "so that you can seem to be someone who loves her husband to the masses." Hipparchia had at least two children, one daughter and one son, Pasicles. It's not certain whether she died, or when. The Suda notes that she authored several ethics treatises and several letters to the Atheist Theodorus. Hipparchia's fame is possibly due to the fact she was a feminist who learned science on equal terms and shared a life with her friends. Both these items have been remarkable for ancient Greece or Rome. Although there have been other women who have opted to act as Cynics, Hipparchia is the only one named after. Crates urges her to renounce wool-spinning and take-up activities, because this is why she married him. Crates reveals by another letter why she took on household tasks: Hipparchia, we're told, gave birth. Despite the resistance by her father and Crates 'initial fear, the storey of Crates' possession of Hipparchia became a popular storey from the 16th century onwards. It appeared in Lodovico Guicciardini's commonplace book, Hore di ricreatione published in 1568, and was one of the storeys mentioned in 1637 in his Touchstone of the Wedding Ring by the Dutch poet Jacob Cats. Her marriage to Crates had inspired Pierre Petit to write Cynogamia, sive de Cratetis et Hipparches, the 1676 Amoribus latin poem. In the same century Clemenza Ninci, an Italian nun, wrote a play entitled Sposalizio d'Iparchia filosofa. The play discusses Hipparchia's desire to marry Crates, as well as the obstacles put in her way before she achieves her dream. The play was written at the monastery for performance, and was published only in the 19th century. The German poet Christoph Martin Wieland made Crates and Hipparchia into the characters of his epistolary novel Krates und Hipparchia. Marcel Schwob's Crates and Hipparchia feature on Vies Imaginaires.
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    Favorinus

    Favorinus

    Favorinus of Arelate was a Roman intersex sophist and philosopher who lived during the Sophisticated Time of Hadrian and Second. He was of Gaulish origin and born in Arelate. He received excellent education, first in Gallia Narbonensis and then in Rome, and at an early age started his lifelong journeys to Greece, Italy and the East. Favorinus possessed immense intellect, coupled with excellent oratorical skills, which in both Athens and Rome took him to eminence. He was on good terms with Plutarch, Herodes Atticus, to whom he left his library in Rome, Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and Emperor Hadrian. His chief adversary was the Polemon of Smyrna, whom he fiercely opposed in his later years. Favorinus eventually showed, after Hadrian had insulted him in an speech in which the sophist might possibly have challenged his opponent, that it was stupid to contest the thirty legions 'master's logic. As the Athenians, claiming to share the emperor's disappointment with the sophist, pulled down a monument that they had erected for him, Favorinus speculated that the hemlock would have been spared if only Socrates had a monument in Athens. Hadrian banished Favorinus to the island of Chios sometime in the 130s. Rehabilitated in 138 with the ascension of Antoninus Pius, Favorinus returned to Rome where he resumed his career as an author and teacher of upper class pupils. Among his students were Alexander Peloplaton, who later would instruct and serve under Marcus Aurelius, and Herodes Atticus, who also educated Marcus Aurelius and to whom Favorinus bequeathed his library. His year of death is unknown, but in his 80's he appears to have survived, and presumably died about 160. Hofeneder notes that Favorinus is comparable to the "Celtic philosopher" explaining the idea of Ogmios by Lucianus. It is likely that the Eunuch Lucian was based on Favorinus. We only keep a few fragments of Favorinus's very separate works, preserved by Aulus Gellius, Diogenes Laërtius, Philostratus, Galen, and in the Suda, Pantodape Historia and Apomnemoneumata. As a philosopher, Favorinus considers himself an Intellectual Skeptic; his most important work in this sense appears to have been the ten-volume Pyrrhonean Tropes, in which he attempts to show that Aenesidemus 'Pyrrhonist Ten Modes has been useful to someone who wants to serve in the courts. Galen dedicated himself to a polemic against Favorinus in "De optima doctrina," questioning the Favorinus argument that the best advice is the assertion in which one talks in favour of opposite sides of each particular question. Galen's treatise states that Favorinus wrote a often named "Plutarch" work "On the Intellectual Temperament" and a work against Epictetus entitled "Against Epictetus," playing one of Plutarch's slaves, Onesimus, debating with Epictet. Favorinus wrote "On the Cataleptic Phantasy," in which he is said to have dismissed cataleptic probability, the core notion in Stoic epistemology. Favorinus is described as a eunuch per birth. Polemon of Laodicea, author of a physiognomy treatise, described Favorinus as a eunuch born without testicles, beardless and with a high pitched, thin voice, while Philostratos described him as hermaphrodit. Hence Favorinus is known by Mason and others as possessing an intersex attribute. Retief and Cilliers suggest the existing meanings suit Reifenstein's syndrome. He was a congénit eunuch living in Rome, Athens, Corinth and Ephesus. He was tutor of Herodes Atticus, Gellius, and Fronto, and was a colleague of Plutarch. He held high office while in Rome under Emperor Hadrian, but was then exiled to Chios until the end of Hadrian's rule, when he returned to Rome and regained his rank. Favorinus wrote discourses, memoirs and declamations on philosophy. In 1931, the Vatican printed his serene essay On Exile from a Greek papyrus. To his other plays there are only fragments.
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    Prodicus

    Prodicus

    Prodicus of Ceos was a Greek philosopher of the first century, and a Sophist king. He came from Ceos to Athens as ambassador, and was known as a tutor and author. Plato views him with more regard than the other sophists and Socrates appears as a relative of Prodicus in much of the Platonic Dialogues. One writer states that Socrates had used his teaching system. Prodicus has made his resume famous in linguistics and in ethics. The substance of one of his speeches is still known, and concerns a fable where Heracles must make a choice between Virtue and Evil. He, too, viewed christianity from the naturalistic eye. Prodicus was a native of Ioulis on Ceos Island, Simonides 'birthplace which he is described as being imitating. Prodicus also came to Athens for commercial dealings on behalf of his native city, and acquired prominence as an orator, though his voice was low and prone to break. Plutarch describes him as thin and weak; and Plato also makes reference to his vulnerability and corresponding degree of effeminacy. Philostratus accuses him of warmth and avarice but this has not been indicated by any earlier source. In the plato Protagoras. Prodicus is described earlier as coming to Athens. He features in Eupolis 'games, and in Aristophanes' The Clouds and The Birds. He came to Athens regularly on public relations. His pupils included the orators Theramenes and Isocrates, and Prodicus was still alive during the year of Socrates 'death. He also gave his lecture on virtue and vice in keeping with the argument of Philostratus in Thebes and Sparta, on which no emphasis can be added. Plato's Repentance unites him with Gorgias and Hippias, as one of many in every area deemed worthy to educate the children. Lucian names him among those who gave Olympic lectures. In Plato's dialogs he is mentioned or treated with some degree of respect, in contrast to the other sophists. Aristophanes, in The Heavens, deals with him more leniently than with Socrates; and Xenophon's Socrates borrows from the book of "the prudent Prodicus" the story of Hercules 'choosing for the purpose of overcoming Aristippus's voluptuousness. Like Protagoras and others, Prodicus gave lectures in exchange for payment from half a drachma to 50 drachmae, perhaps depending on whether the hearers were the ones at issue. Prodicus is said to have accrued considerable capital. After the rich youth, the assertion he hunted is contained only at Philostratus. Prodicus had been a major part of Sophist's first generation. "He was a Sophist in the full sense of a professional freelance writer." As he studied both philosophy and politics, and as Plato portrays his orientations as predominantly ethical, he prioritizes his differentiation of values, such as bravery, rashness, boldness, over similar attempts by other sophists. He also gave individual show-orations, and although Callimachus is known, they do not seem to have been preserved for long. Compared to Gorgias and others, who spoke of possessing the capacity to make the tiny look immense, the big poor, and to expatriate in long or short speeches, Prodicus demanded that the speech be neither long nor brief, but of the appropriate scale, and it is only as synonymous with other sophists that he is entrusted with the attempt to make the weaker cause seem stronger by the use of Severa. It is said that Thucydides learnt his accuracy in using terms from him. Socrates states in the Cratylus that he would now be an authority on "the truth of names" had he been able to afford the fifty lectures on drachmas. In some of the Platonic dialogues, Socrates acts as Prodicus 'friend and partner, which at least suggests that the two had close personal relations, and that Socrates attended at least a couple of his lectures. For Socrates, accurate language was a necessity for a decent life.
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    Pythagoras

    Pythagoras

    Samos 'Pythagoras was an ancient Greek Ionian philosopher, and Pythagorean author of the same name. In Magna Graecia, his political and metaphysical teachings were well known and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy. Knowledge of his life is clouded by legend, but it seems he was the son of Mnesarchus, a Samos Island gem-engraver. Modern scholars differ about Pythagoras 'education and background, but they acknowledge that he traveled to Croton around 530 BC, in what is now Southern Italy, where he established a school where initiates were sworn to secrecy and practiced a hierarchical, ascetic lifestyle. This lifestyle included a number of dietary limitations but vegetarianism is commonly said to have been included. Metempsychosis is the most closely connected concept with Pythagoras, or the "transmigration of souls," which insists that every spirit is immortal and assumes a new body upon death. He may also have invented the principle of musica universalis, which holds that the planets move according to mathematical equations, and therefore echo to produce an inaudible symphony of music. Scholars debate whether Pythagoras established the numerological and musical teachings credited to him, or whether those teachings were created by his later followers, especially Croton's Philolaos. Following Croton's decisive victory over Sybaris in around 510 BC, Pythagorean followers came into conflict with freedom supporters and demolished houses with Pythagorean assemblies. Pythagoras may have been executed during this persecution, or fled to Metapontum, where he finally died. In ancient times Pythagoras was credited with several mathematical and scientific discoveries, including the Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean tuning, the five natural solids, the Theory of Proportions, the sphericity of the Earth, and the root of the morning and evening stars as the planet Venus; It was said that he was the first man to name himself a philosopher, and the first to split the globe into five climatic zones. Classical scholars argue that Pythagoras made these discoveries, as many of the observations credited to him either occurred earlier, or were made by his colleagues or predecessors. Some sources state that mathematics was related to the philosophy associated with Pythagoras, and that numbers were important, but it is disputed to what degree he actually contributed to mathematics or natural philosophy, if anything. Plato was influenced by Pythagoras, whose dialogs display the Pythagorean ideas, especially his Timaeus. Pythagorean ideas in mathematical excellence had also inspired ancient Greek architecture. In the first century BC his teachings underwent a major revival among Middle Platonists which coincided with the rise of Neopythagoreanism. Pythagoras tended to be considered a great scholar in the Middle Ages and his philosophy had a major influence on scientists such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton. Pythagoras was known by Aristotle as a magician and a very magical character. In a fragment, Aristotle mentions that Pythagoras had a silver leg which he unveiled publicly at the Olympic Games and introduced the Hyperborean to Abaris as evidence of his life as the "Hyperborean Apollo." Apollo's priest supposedly gave Pythagoras a magic arrow which he used to fly long distances and conduct ritual purifications. He was allegedly seen on both Metapontum and Croton once at the same time. When Pythagoras crossed the Kosas Bridge, "several witnesses" reported hearing him by name saluting him. In the Roman times one story believed that Pythagoras was the uncle of Apollo. It has been said that Hermes initiated Pythagoras, in line with Muslim tradition. Though Pythagoras is generally most notable for his purported mathematical discoveries, classical scholars doubt whether he himself has ever made any substantial contributions to the field. Pythagoras was credited with various mathematical and science achievements, including his famous theorem, as well as literary, astronomy, and medical advances. Since at least the first century BC, Pythagoras has traditionally been given credit for discovering the Pythagorean theorem, a theorem in geometry which states that "in a right- triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. According to legend, Pythagoras discovered that musical notes could be converted into mathematical equations as he moves by.
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    Proclus

    Proclus

    Proclus Lycaeus, one of the last prominent classical philosophers, was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher. He set out one of Neoplatonism's most complex and thoroughly defined structures. He stands near the end of philosophy's classical development, and inspired medieval Western philosophy. Proclus was born to a family of high social standing in Lycia on 8 February 412 AD in Constantinople and raised in Xanthus. In Alexandria he studied rhetoric, philosophy, and mathematics with the intention of seeking a judicial role like his father. He returned to Constantinople before finishing his studies while his rector, his principal professor, was doing business there. Proclus was a professional legal practitioner. However, Proclus 'understanding in legal enforcement made him understand that he really enjoyed philosophy. He returned to Alexandria, and began researching Aristotle's works under Olympiodorus the Elder with determination. At this time he also started learning mathematics with a tutor named Heron. As a talented academic, he gradually became disappointed with the degree of philosophical education available in Alexandria, and in 431 he went to Athens, the pre-eminent philosophical center of the day, to study at the Neoplatonic successor to the renowned Academy founded by Plato 800 years earlier. There he was taught by Plutarch of Athens, Syrius, and Asclepigenia; he succeeded Syrius as head of the Academy, and, in effect, Marinus of Neapolis would follow on his death. He remained in Athens as a vegetarian bachelor, wealthy and charitable to his relatives, until the end of his life, save for a temporary one-year exile intended to lessen the burden placed on him by his political-philosophical involvement, little accepted by the Christian rulers; he spent the exile traveling and being baptized into numerous mystery cultes. He was also taught in the Neoplatonism "theurgical," as translated from the Orphic and Chaldean Oracles. His house was recently discovered in Athens, under the pavement of Dionysiou Areopagitou Lane, south of Acropolis, opposite the Dionysus Theatre. He had a deep devotion to goddess Athena, who at crucial points of his life he believed led him. Marinus states that a stunning woman appeared to Proclus in a vision when Christians removed the statue of the goddess from the Parthenon and declared that the "Athenian Beauty" wanted to stay at his home. Proclus died at 73 years of age, and was buried in a tomb near Mount Lycabettus. It's confirmed he wrote 700 lines every day. Proclus's plays are mainly commentaries on Plato's dialogues. In these remarks, he introduces his own philosophical philosophy as Plato's faithful reading, and in this he did not differ from other Neoplatonists, stating that "nothing in the corpus of Plato is accidental or there by accident," that "the writings of Plato were divinely inspired," that "the structured structure and substance of Platonic texts imitated that of the cosmos," and so on. However, Proclus was a close reader of Plato, and he frequently made he astute comments on his Platonic origins. A few of his Platonic remarks are lost. As for the other Neoplatonists, Proclus 'scheme is a mixture of Platonic, Aristotelian, and Stoic components. The Proclus scheme fits with that of Plotinus in its large outlines. However, after Iamblichus, Plutarch of Athens, and his mentor Syrius, Proclus proposes a much more complex world than Plotinus, subdividing the components of the structure of Plotinus into their logically distinct parts, and positing such parts as individual matters. The monism which is universal to all Neoplatonists combines this aggregation of entities. Thucydides is said to have learned his consistency by using words by him. Socrates notes in the Cratylus that if he had been able to afford the fifty lectures on drachmas he would now be an expert on "the truth of names" Socrates appears as Prodicus 'companion and collaborator in some of the Platonic Dialogues, which at least indicates that the two had close personal connections, and that Socrates attended at least a couple of his lectures. Accurate grammar, for Socrates, was a must for decent life.