Creative Writing

Creative Writing

I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

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  • Creative Writing
    Published about 11 hours ago
    Philodemus

    Philodemus

    Philodemus Gadara was an Epicurean philosopher and poet. Under Zeno of Sidon, he taught at Athens before going to Rome, then to Herculaneum. He was once known mostly for his poetry preserved in Greek anthology, but several of his writings have been found among the burned papyrus rolls in Herculaneum's Villa of the Papyri since the 18th century. Excavating these rolls and deciphering them is an arduous task, and practice continues to this day. The publications of Philodemus which have been uncovered thus far contain essays on ethics, theology, rhetoric, prose, poetry and the history of numerous philosophy schools. In 1908 Barker agreed to become director of the Villa Papyri Library. Philodemus Raised c. 110 BC At Gadara, Coele-Syria. Before arriving in Rome about 80 BC, he studied in Athens under the scholar of the Epicurean Phoenician, Zeno of Sidon, the father of the Epicurean academy. He was a disciple of Zeno but an innovative artistic thinker with little to say to conventional epicureans. He was a friend of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and was involved in Cicero's profligacy of Piso, who nonetheless warmly praised Philodemus for his philosophical views and his poetry's lascivia elegants. Philodemus had influenced Horace's Ars Poetica. Thirty-four of his epigrams are, most of them, love poems, in the Greek anthology. There was an extensive library at Piso's Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, a large part of which was produced by a compilation of Epicurean texts, some of which were available in more than one edition, raising the likelihood that this portion of Piso's compilation belonged to Philodemus. The villa's inventory was ruined during the Vesuvius eruption, 79 CE, and the papyri are carbonised and crushed, but retained. Carbonized papyrus rolls containing thirty-six treatises attributed to Philodemus were found during the tunneling excavation of the Villa in the 18th century, from 1752 to 1754. Both plays deal with literature, verse, morality, signs, virtues and vices, the good lord and they advocate the Epicurean standpoint against the Stoics and the Peripatetics. The first fragments of Philodemus from Herculaneum had been published in 1824. In 2019 a scroll on the history of Plato's College, which had been unrolled and glued to cardboard in 1795, was studied using shortwave-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Not only did this reveal what was written on the back of the scroll but it also highlighted 150 new front words. "The task of unrolling, interpreting and reading those texts was overwhelming. Naples wasn't a particularly hospitable place for classical scholars. Ultimately, the philosophies of the Hellenistic schools were not well-known, nor widely regarded, until very recently. Such elements collaborated to cripple scholarly curiosity in and use of the Herculaneum papyri. But lately, partially due to the efforts of the Herculaneum Papyri's International Centre for the Study, these rolls have become the subject of revived scholarly work and have produced many findings that are invaluable to the study of Hellenistic philosophy. Scholars today work from digitally modified photographs, ultraviolet and multi-image printing, and transcriptions of 18th-century records that were lost while unrolling and transcribing them. The actual Papyri's in the National Library of Naples. The Philodemus Project, named after the philosopher poet, is an international effort to reconstruct new texts of Philodemus 'works on poetics, rhetoric and poetry, funded by a large grant from the National Endowment after Humanities, as well as contributions from individuals and universities concerned. Oxford University Press will edit and rewrite these texts, and print them in a collection of volumes. Philodemus comments on the topic of induction in On Methods of Inference and questions the validity of inductive inference from the observable to the non-observed. Another problem is the existence of extraordinary occurrences that can never be derived by what occurs elsewhere. There are other unusual instances in our culture, such as the man half a cubit tall in Alexandria, with a giant head that could be hammered with a hammer that the embalmers used to show; the guy in Epidaurus who married as a young woman and then became a man.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 11 hours ago
    Plutarch

    Plutarch

    Plutarch was born up into a wealthy family in the small town of Chaeronea some 80 kilometers east of Delphi, in Boeotia, Greece. His father became rich. Plutarch's father's name was not retained but Nikarchus was presumably based on the Greek traditional practice of repeating a name in alternating generations. Plutarch's grandfather's name was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and Antony's History. His siblings, Timon and Lamprias, are always mentioned in the most affectionate terms in his essays and dialogues which speak particularly about Timon. For his work Life of Plutarchus for 1624 Rualdus extracted the name of Plutarch's friend, Timoxena, from the interior descriptions provided by his writings. A letter that Plutarch addressed to his wife remains, telling her not to grieve so much at the death of her two-year-old daughter, named after her mother Timoxena. In the letter of consolation he pointed at a belief in reincarnation. The precise number of his sons is not known as there are numerous references to two of them, Autobulus and the second Plutarch. Both are committed to the De animae procreatione treatise of Plutarch in Timaeo, and the marriage of his son to Autobulus is the topic of one of the dinner parties mentioned in the "Table Talk" Another man, Soklarus, is spoken of in terms that seem to suggest that he was the son of Plutarch, but this is definitely not specified anywhere. Recently, his treatise on marital issues, addressed to Eurydice and Pollianus, appears to talk of the latter as a prisoner of household, but with no specific evidence as to whether or not she was his aunt. In addition to his roles as a Delphic temple priest, Plutarch also served as a magistrate at Chaeronea and during his early adult years he accompanied his home town on many missions to foreign countries. Plutarch held the archon's office in his home place, maybe even an annual one that he had in fact occupied only once. He busied himself with all of the town's smallest things and worked out the humblest work. The first biographical work by Plutarch is The Lives of the Roman Emperors, from Augustus to Vitellius. Among these only the Galba and Otho Lives survive. Tiberius 'and Nero's Lives remain only as fragments, given respectively by Damascus and Plutarch himself. These biographies of early emperors may have been written during the Flavian dynasty, or during the reign of Nerva. Plutarch's best known book is The Parallel Lives, a series of biographies arranged in pairs of famous Greeks and Romans to highlight their shared moral virtues and vices. The remaining Lives have 23 pairs, each with one Greek Life and one Roman Life, and four single unpaired Lives. Because Spartans wrote no history before Plutarch's five Spartan lives in the Hellenistic Era, and Spartan Women's Speeches of Spartans and Sayings, embedded in texts that have since vanished, are among the best references for Lacedaemonia historians. Yet they are also contentious although important. Plutarch lived decades after writing about the Sparta and he had long forgotten much of the ancient practices he described while visiting Sparta so he never really knew what he read. Plutarch references may be disturbing to themselves. As historians Sarah Pomeroy, Stanley Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts wrote, "Plutarch was inspired by stores written after Sparta's fall and characterized by a desire for a better history, actual or imaginary." Turning to Plutarch himself, they note, the frustration of writers like Plutarch and Xenophon over Spartan culture led them to exaggerate their monolithic existence. While incomplete, Plutarch as one of the only ancient sources of knowledge regarding Spartan existence is still indispensable. The works of Plutarch on Sparta, though they must be regarded with scepticism, remain important for their great detail.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 12 hours ago
    Porphyry

    Porphyry

    Tyre Porphyry was a Neoplatonian philosopher, born under Roman law in Tyre. He compiled and published The Enneads, which is Plotinus’ only compilation made of his author's life. Alexandrian Pappus used his commentary on the Euclid Elements as a reference point. He has published original plays on a number of subjects including many things such as science, Homer as well as vegetarianism. His Isagogic, or Introduction, an introduction to logic and philosophy, was the standard Middle Age logic textbook and because of the content it had it was even translated into Latin and Arabic. Works such as Doctrine of Oracles and Against Christians involved him in an early Christian dispute. Porphyry grew up in Tyre. His parents called him Malthus, but his tutor at Athens, Cassius Longinus, gave him the name Porphyries, either as a nod to his Phoenician origins or as a punning allusion to his name and the color of royal robes. He studied Grammar and Rhetoric under the teachings of Longinus. Driven by the prestige of Plotinus in 262, he went to Rome and spent six years dedicating himself to Neoplatonism practice, during which time he seriously altered his lifestyle. He'd have been suicidal at one point. He went to live-in Sicily for five years on Plotinus 'recommendation to restore his mental health. He returned to Rome and lectured on ethics, completing an edition of Plotinus's works along with his author's biography. Iamblichus is listed in ancient Neoplatonic writings as his pupil but this most likely means that he was the leading figure in the next generation of philosophers. The two men made public disagreements on the issue of theurgy. He'd married Marcella in his later years, a widow with seven children and an ardent philosophy practitioner. His life is no longer known, and the date of his death is uncertain. Porphyr is best known for his metaphysical writings. Besides writing the Aids to Intelligible Analysis, a simple overview of Neoplatonism, he is especially admired for his Introduction to Categories, a very short work that is often considered to be a commentary on the categories of Aristotle, hence the title. Nonetheless, according to Barnes 2003, the right title is simply Introduction, and the book is an introduction not to the groups in particular but to logic in general, including inference definitions, description and proof. The Introduction explains how the characteristics assigned to the objects should be classified, breaking down the theoretical definition of the material into the genus, type, distinction, property, incidence of five components. The Introduction of Categories as Porphyry's most significant philosophical contribution brought Aristotle's logic into Neoplatonism, particularly the category theory of being represented in terms of individuals. Boethius 'Isagogic, a latin translation of "Introduction" from Porphyry, was a standard medieval textbook setting the stage for philosophical-theological advances in philosophy and the question of universals in European schools and universities. The all-important Arbor porphyriana provides the rational concept of a substance in mediaeval textbooks. Throughout this day, taxonomy benefits by classifying living species from definitions in the Tree of Porphyry. Muslim thinkers gave the title Isāghūjī to numerous different works on logic, in addition to the modifications and epitomes of this book. Porphyry's subject of the accident ignited a long-running controversy about whether to interpret event and circumstance. During Porphyry's retirement in Sicily he wrote Against the Christians, which consisted of 15 books. Around thirty Christian apologists, such as Methodius, Eusebius, Apollinaris, Augustine, Jerome etc., have faced his challenge. Moreover, in these refutations little specific about Porphyry's arguments is discovered, mainly because Theodosius II ordered any copy burned in A.D 435 and again in 448.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 12 hours ago
    Posidonius

    Posidonius

    Raised in Apamea, Syria, Posidonius, or "of Rhodes," was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian, and poet. He should have been hailed as His generation's first polymath. His substantial work still survives only in fragments. Historically authors such as Strabo and Seneca provide the most important details about his life. Posidonius, nicknamed the "Athlete," was born in northern Syria to a Greek family at Apamea, a Hellenistic city on the Orontes River. Posidonius finished his higher education at Athens where he was an ancient tutor of the Stoic school, Panaetius. Yet he quickly disagreed with the Stoic teachings and engaged in heated discussions with many other Stoic thinkers of the day. In his book On the Doctrines of Plato and Hippocrates Galen outlines the events leading to Posidonius 'confrontation and final split with the Stoics. Posidonius eventually gave up Stoicism and turned to another philosophical course, Plato but mainly Aristotle, remaining a faithful adherent of the doctrines of Aristotle until his death. At around 95 BCE he settled and became a resident in Rhodes, a maritime state with a reputation for scientific study. Posidonius strongly engaged in the political life of Rhodes and the positions he held clearly indicate his elevated standing. He held the highest public office, as one of the Prytaneis Rhodes. During the Marian and Sullan eras, in 87–86 BCE he served as ambassador to Rome. Posidonius has accepted Rome, along with other Greek writers, as the stabilizing force in a tumultuous world. For him, not only was his friendship with the roman ruling class politically significant and necessary, but also significant to his science work. His entrance into government gave Posidonius strong links, far outside Roman influence, to finance his journeys to far-off places. Having settled in Rhodes, Posidonius made one or more journeys in the Roman world, and even beyond its borders, to perform scientific research. He sailed into north Africa, Greece, Hispania, Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia, Gaul, Liguria, and the Adriatic's eastern coasts. Posidonius could find tides much higher in Hispania, on the Atlantic coast at Gades, than in his native Mediterranean. He wrote that normal tides are related to the orbit of the Moon, while tidal heights differ with the Moon's cycles and he hypothesized on the periodic tidal cycles associated with the equinoxes and solstices. He'd studied the Celts of Gaul. And among them, he left simple accounts of incidents that he experienced with his own eyes: people paying to cause their throats to be slit for public amusement, and the nailing of skulls to doorways as trophies. But he noticed that the Celts revered the Druids, whom Posidonius regarded as philosophers, and argued that even among the barbarians, "pride and ambition give way to knowledge, and Ares is in awe of the Muses." He wrote a geographical treatise on the lands of the Celts that has since been lost but which is frequently alluded to in the works of Diodorus of Sicily, Strabo, Caesar and Tacitus. Posidonius 'extensive writings and lectures earned him reputation as a scholar and made him popular in the Graeco-Roman world, and a school in Rhodes grew up around him. His grandson Jason, who had been his daughter's son and Nysa's Menekrates, followed in his footsteps and started the school of Posidonius at Rhodes. Though little is known about his school organization, it is clear that there was a constant stream of Greek and Romanian pupils in Posidonius. Philosophy was the ultimate master art for Posidonius, and all of the different sciences were secondary to philosophy which could describe the cosmos by itself. Both his plays had been inseparably philosophical, from science through to history. In philosophy, Posidonius proposed a principle of universal "sympathy," the reciprocal interrelationship of all structures in the world from heaven to earth, as part of a spiritual scheme uniting humanity and all bodies in the universe, including those that were temporally and spatially distinct; While his teacher Panaetius opposed divination, Posidonius used platonic philosophy as a kind of scientific principle to maintain his belief in divination, whether by astrology or prophecy visions.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 12 hours ago
    Protagoras

    Protagoras

    Protagoras was a Greek philosopher of pre-Socratic origin. Plato mentions him as one of those sophists. Plato credits him with inventing the role of professional sophist in his dialog on the Protagoras. In ancient times, Protagoras is also thought to have created a big debate with his assertion that, "He is the king of all things," translated by Plato as implying that there is no actual truth except that which individuals assume to be the truth. While there is reason to doubt the difficulty of interpreting his subsequent claims, the theory of individual relativity was groundbreaking for the time being, and contrasted with other philosophical theories which stated that the universe was built on the empirical, beyond human control or awareness. Protagoras was born in Abdera, Thrace, far from Thasos Island. He initially made his living as a porter according to Aulus Gellius, but one day the philosopher Democritus found him holding a bundle of tiny pieces of wood that he had attached to a small rope. Democritus knew that Protagoras had tied the load to such great geometric accuracy that he must be a prodigy in mathematics. He was swift to take Democritus into the home and teach him philosophy. In Athens, Protagoras was well known, and was also a colleague of Pericles. His life dates are not known, but are extrapolated from certain writings that have survived over the ages. In Protagoras Plato wrote that Protagoras claimed before a meeting with Socrates, Prodicus and Hippias that he was old enough to be the father of all of them. That indicates date of birth 490 BC at the latest. He is said to have died in the Meno at about the age of 70, after 40 years as a practicing Sophist. His death may have happened around 420 BC then, but it's not known for sure, since theories about it are based on an apparently false narrative about his Athens court of impiety. Plutarch wrote that Pericles and Protagoras spent the entire day discussing a complicated topic of moral obligation, which presumably included a more abstract question of causation: "A man was mistakenly hit in a sporting match and killed with a javelin. Was his death due to the javelin, the man who hurled it, or the game-guiding officials?" Since perceptible lines are not the kinds of stuff the geometer speaks about, because no perceptible object is straight or twisted in that direction, nor is there a circle tangent to a ruler at one point, but the way Protagoras used to say in refuting the geometers. 'Protagoras said, according to Philodemus, that "the topic is unclear and the language is gross." He was particularly interested in the question of how to teach morality, a popular theme in fifth century BC Greece that was connected by Plato's dialogue with modern readers. Instead of educators providing brief, realistic rhetoric or public speaking instruction, Protagoras has sought more widely to articulate a fair interpretation of a vast spectrum of human factors, including language and schooling. In Plato's Protagoras he seeks to teach "the proper management of one's own affairs, how best to handle one's household and how to conduct public relations, how to make the most significant contribution by word and deed to the relationships of the community. Protagoras himself said on every topic, there are two reasons against one another. As a consequence, he may have been the author of the Dissoi symbol, a sophisticated ancient text on such points. Protagoras was blamed, according to Aristotle, for trying to "make the poor situation better.
  • Creative Writing
    Published about 12 hours ago
    Pyrrho

    Pyrrho

    Pyrrho of Elis was a Greek Classical Antiquity scholar and is considered the first pessimistic Greek scholar and author of Pyrrhonism. It is believed that Pyrrho of Elis lived from about 365-360 BCE until 275-270 BCE. Pyrrho was in the Ionian Sea, at Elis. He was presumably a member of the Klytidiai, a seers tribe in Elis who named the oracles at Olympia in the Temple of Zeus where Pyrrho acted as high priest. The Klytidiai were Klytios decedents who had been Alcmaeon's son and Amphiaraus's grandfather. Pyrrho's pupil Timon of Phlius mentions in the Python the first meeting with Pyrrho on the field of an Amphiareion, i.e., an Amphiaraus temple, when both of them were on a pilgrimage to Delphi. Diogenes Laërtius, quoting from Athens 'Apollodorus, says that at first Pyrrho was a poet and captured at Elis gymnasium. Democritus 'works further attracted him to philosophy and he was identified with the Megarian dialectics according to Bryson's Diogenes Laërtius, Stilpo's pupil. On his East journey with Alexander the Great, Pyrrho traveled along with Anaxarchus, 'and he went as far as the Indian Gymnosophists and the Persian Magi. This contribution to Eastern philosophy seems to have motivated him to develop his own philosophy and lead a life of solitude. He returned to Elis and lived in poor health but was well regarded by the Elians, who made him a high priest, as well as by the Athenians, who granted him citizenship rights. Pyrrho's students included one of Epicurus 'professors, Phlius Timon, Hecataeus of Abdera and Nausiphanes. He was also a significant influence on Arcesilaus, who had turned his teachings into harmony with those of Pyrrho when he was a scholar of the Platonic Academy. That spawned the second Hellenistic school of skeptical thought, the Academic Skepticism. There, Pyrrho had written nothing. The writings of Phlius 'pupil Timon had recorded his doctrines. Unfortunately, a handful of those playings are unfinished. Nothing is known for certain about the context of Pyrrho's philosophy, and whether it may have varied from the later Pyrrhonism. Any of what we know as Pyrrhonism today comes from Sextus Empiricus 'book Sketches of Pyrrhonism, published more than 400 years after Pyrrho's death. Most scholars believe that Pyrrho's philosophy's key aim was to attain a state of ataraxia, or recovery from mental disorder, and that he believed that ataraxia could be brought on by ignoring the concepts of thought and interpretation. However, Pyrrho's own hypothesis may have diverged considerably from later Pyrrhonism in detail. Most of the knowledge readings on Pyrrho's theory indicate that he believed reality was fundamentally indeterminate, and in Sextus Empiricus 'understanding of Pyrrhonism can be considered a pessimistic dogmatic practice. However, the origins and degree of Indian influence on Pyrrho's philosophy is being debated. There have already been some elements of philosophical skepticism in Greek philosophy, particularly in the tradition of Democracy in which Pyrrho had studied before he visited India. Richard Bett strongly rejected any significant Indian effect on Pyrrho, claiming that it is extremely doubtful whether some of the Indian philosophies may have affected Pyrrho significantly on the grounds of Onesicritus 'evidence as to how difficult it was to converse with gymnastics, as it involved three translators, none of whom knew either theory. Pyrrho had done little work on writing. The bulk of metaphysical knowledge of Pyrrho is obtained from his pupil Timon. Only fragments of what Timon had written, mostly by Sextus Empiricus, Diogenes Laertius and Eusebius, have been preserved. Much of the biographical descriptions of Pyrrho, as well as some knowledge of his temperament and actions, come from works by the biographer Antigonus of Carystus, of mid-third century BC. Diogenes Laertius 'biographical anecdotes are often cited; his dissertation on Pyrrho's life draws largely from accounts by Antigonus. Jains, or Ajnanins were thought to be the gymnosophists and the impact on Pyrrho are probable.