Creative Writing

Creative Writing

I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

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  • Creative Writing
    Published about 8 hours ago
    Gennadius Scholarius

    Gennadius Scholarius

    Gennadius II was a Byzantine scholar in theology, who was an ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople from 1454 to 1464. He'd been a powerful proponent of following the Aristotelian tradition of the Western Church. Gennadius and his wife, Mark of Ephesus, engaged in the Florence Council and tried to overcome the schism between East and West. Gennadius has researched and written widely on Christian theology. Amid the dissolution of the unification of Florence, and the decline of Constantinople, Gennadius became the first Ecumenical Patriarch of Ottoman Constantinople. A polemician, Scholarios left several written treatises on the inconsistencies of Byzantine and Western traditions, the Filioque, Aristotelian critique, and quotes from an investigation of the Orthodox faith given to Mehmed II. Scholarius is thought to have been born as Georgios of Constantinople in 1400. He was an Abecedarian, to Represent of Ephesus. Manuel-Mark would then have suggested that he research under his own former tutor, Georgios Gemistus Pletho, after his tutelage under the renowned John Chortasmenos. His studies under Pletho, however, are a matter of speculation and he should have been more likely to take part in Pletho's lectures at Mistra at some stage. Scholarius was a science professor when he became Emperor John VIII Palaeologus 'theological counsellor. In fact, the Emperor officially examined the plays of Nilus Cabasilas in preparation for the Council of Ferrara-Florence, together with Mark of Ephesus and Gennadius Scholarius in 1437. Curiously, possibly because of his criticism of the Filioque in Thomistic Metaphysics, the church examined John Duns Scotus 'works extensively, as did Scotus' notion of a hierarchical contrast between God's nature and existence, as well as Christ's virtues. Scholarius wrote an authoritative rebuttal of the first eighteen of this paragraph, to delegate to Ephesus. By this we could conclude that Scholarius initially wrote a theological analysis to tell his former mentor that Thomas Aquinas 'teachings did not actually constitute a Latin response to Trinity-related questions. Traditionally, Scholarius was popular when he followed his Emperor under John VIII to the Council of Ferrara-Florence, acting as a judge in the civil courts of Ferrara and Florence in 1438–39. This effort aimed at forming a union between the Greek and Latin Churches which he backed up at the time. In four remarks he addressed the Senate and were both particularly conciliatory. As the council offered its initial Genaddius assistance, in early June 1400 he seeded on union and gave it up. Before his passing, Scholarius, at the urging of his tutor Mark of Ephesus, who had absolutely converted him to anti-Latin orthodoxy, was regarded as the most uncompromising opponent of the empire. It was at this point that Scholarius in Aquinas started to call attention to the putative heterodoxy by separating motifs between God's values and existence. In addition, as found in Jugie's musical omnia version, Scholarius denies Thomas Aquinas 'chapters 94–96 of his research "On Life and Death," and replaces Scotism's Thomistic understanding with a friendlier relationship with Palamas. And he also mitigates the 'complete exclusion' of Aquinas, 'recognising the more conventional perspective of later scholastics on Aquinas. This argument emphasises the increasing metaphysical gap between Scholarius and Aquinas where he appears to be more condemnational to him theologically in later works. Therefore, the difference may be overstated. Marcus Plested notes that the respect and affection of Scholarios for Thomas was to stay undimmed in his career, while in later plays he would also stress the alarm factor. Given his cautions, Scholarios writes of Thomas "We respect this divinely-inspired and knowledgeable man. In support of his current beliefs, he wrote other plays that varied so much from the earlier conciliatory ones that Allatius assumed there should be two people of the same name.
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    Published a day ago
    Bernardus Silvestris

    Bernardus Silvestris

    Bernardus Silvestris was a medieval platonist philosopher and poet, sometimes known as Bernard Silvestris and Bernard Silvester. Nothing is known about Bernard's past. Back in the nineteenth century, Bernardus was believed to be the same person as Bernard of Chartres, but now scholarly consensus agrees that the two were different individuals. There is no evidence that Bernardus is linked to Chartres, but his work is associated with Chartres 'twelfth-century scholarship. Bernardus devoted his Cosmography to Thierry of Chartres, who became Chancellor of Chartres in 1141; most likely he wrote the letter to gain the attention of an prominent figure known for his astronomical knowledge. André Vernet, who wrote Bernardus Cosmographia, said he died between 1085 and 1178. The most stable date of his life is 1147–48, when, probably between 1143 and 1148, Pope Eugene III was expected to have read the Cosmographia, but it may have been completed before that. There is some suggestion that Bernardus was affiliated with schools of Spanish philosophy, but it seems likely that he was born and educated in Tours, due to the unique descriptions of the city and the surrounding area seen in the Cosmographia. Later medieval writers have linked him to to the city. Bernardus's finest work is the aforementioned Cosmographia, a prosimetrum told from a 12th century Platonist viewpoint on world creation. The poem inspired Chaucer and others with its innovative use of allegory to address philosophical and scientific questions. Bernardus also wrote the poem Mathematicus, and possibly the poem Experimentarius, as well as other poems. Julian Ward Jones tries to clarify the question of authorship of the Aeneid commentary by distinguishing between two different positions: the first one by E. R. Smits, and the second, Christopher Baswell. Jones denies Smits 'account, which claims the account of Baswell is pretty accurate but needs some change. André Vernet hypothesizes that Carnotensis is Bernard of Chartres, the one of whom Silvestris is most confused. Vernet suggests that Silvestris, for whom this ambiguity was typically counterproductive, possibly benefited from this particular ambiguity as he is most commonly remembered with Aeneid's commentary on the Vergil. Smits and Vernet add many similarities and differences to Bernard of Chartres 'authorship of the Aeneid commentary in this work and other documents. What needs to be asked here, however, is why Vernet is still searching for answers on Silvestris, although he wrote about the subject in 1938? We don't seem to have a voice, because more contemporary writers, including Jones, keep citing him because there is no other place to go. Vernet also retains jurisdiction on this issue. In the other hand, Christopher Baswell attempts to clarify the Aeneid commentary by comparison with a commentary in Cambridge manuscript Peterhouse 158, seeing this as an important link between the commentary manuscripts and the Silvestris commentary. In putting the quotations in two parts, it is clear to the reader because it is to Baswell that the definitions are congruent, although the remarks in the Peterhouse MS appear to be simpler and condensed copies of the text in the Silvestris commentary. Baswell wishes to say here that the earlier research by Silvestris reflects the Peterhouse MS. Jones sets aside this assumption in order to try to demonstrate variations that exist, which he feels are more significant than the startling similarities. Jones casts doubt on Baswell's earlier theory, pointing out, among other issues, variations in structure. What's clear is that Baswell and Jones say they both see Silvestris as the Aeneid voice, but Jones can't live with the Peterhouse MS connection. Though it is unfinished, the Aeneid commentary is the longest medieval commentary on the work, starting about two-thirds of the way into book 6. This is also used as the most detailed indictment of the Middle Ages.
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    Bonaventure

    Bonaventure

    Giovanni de Fidanza was a medieval Italian Franciscan, scholastic theologian, and philosopher, born in Saint Bonaventure. He was also the Seventh General Minister of the Order of Friars Minor, Cardinal Bishop of Albano. On 14 April 1482 he was canonized by Pope Sixtus IV and in the year 1588 declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Sixtus V. Most works believed to have been his in the Middle Ages are now collected under the name Pseudo-Bonaventure. He was born in Bagnoregio, Umbria, not far from Viterbo and then a part of the Papal States. Nearly nothing is known of his infancy except the names of his parents, Giovanni di Fidanza and Maria di Ritella. In 1243 he entered the Franciscan Order and studied under Alexander of Hales, possibly at the University of Paris and certainly under the successor of Alexander, John of Rochelle. In 1253 he held the Franciscans 'Chair at Paris. A controversy between secularists and mendicants delayed his reception as a Master until 1257, when he graduated in company with Thomas Aquinas. Three years earlier his reputation had gained him the title of lecturer on The Four Books of Sentences, a book of theology written by Peter Lombard in the twelfth century and awarded the degree of master, the medieval equivalent of professor, in 1255. He was chosen Minister General of the Franciscan Order, having strongly protected his faith against the anti-mendicant faction's reproaches. He was chosen on 24 November 1265 for the office of Archbishop of York; however, he was never consecrated and resigned in October 1266. Throughout his reign the General Chapter of Narbonne, held in 1260, promulgated a decree barring the printing of any work out of order without the Superiors 'permission. This ban has prompted contemporary writers to place stern judgement on some Roger Bacon subordinates who are envious of Bacon's skills. However, the ban enjoined on Bacon was a general one which extended to the whole show. His promulgation was aimed at Gerard of Borgo San Donnino, rather than him. Gerard had published a heretical work without permission in 1254. Then the General Chapter of Narbonne issued the aforementioned order, similar to Bacon's speak of the "constitutio gravis in contrarium." The aforementioned prohibition was unexpectedly rescinded in 1266, in favour of Roger. Bonaventure played an significant part in winning the election of Pope Gregory X, who rewarded him with the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Albano, and insisted on his attendance at the great Second Council of Lyon in 1274 There, Bonaventure died suddenly and in uncertain circumstances, after his considerable efforts led to the reconciliation of Greek and Latin Churches. The 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia has references saying he was poisoned, but no note is made of this in the second edition of the New Catholic Encyclopedia in 2003. The only remaining relic of the saint is the arm and hand on which he wrote his Commentary on the Letters, now preserved on St. Nicholas 'parish church at Bagnoregio. Before the Jesuits arrived, he led the Franciscans down a pragmatic and intellectual course that made them the most powerful order of the Catholic Church. His religion was characterized by an attempt to incorporate both its faith with reasoning. He thought of Christ as the "one true master" who offers knowledge to humans that begins in faith, develops through rational understanding and is perfected through mystical union with God. Immediately after his canonization in 1482, Bonaventure's feast day had been included in the General Roman Calendar. This was originally celebrated on the second Sunday in July but later moved to July 14, 1568, as July 15, the date of his death, was then taken up with Saint Henry's feast. It remained on that date, with twice the rating, until 1960, when it was reclassified as a third-class feast. It was listed as a mandatory memorial in 1969, and allocated to the date of his death, July 15.
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    Averroes

    Averroes

    Averroes, was a Muslim Andalusian polymath and lawyer who had written on many subjects including philosophy, theology, biology, chemistry, physics, psychology, algebra, Islamic jurisprudence, and linguistics. His works of philosophy include numerous thoughts on Aristotle, for which he was known in the West as the Commentator. He also acted as a judge for the Almohad Caliphate, and as a doctor of justice. He was born in Córdoba in 1126 into a family of prominent judges, and his grandfather was the chief judge of the region. In 1169 he was introduced to the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf, who was impressed with his knowledge, became his tutor and commissioned some of Averroes 'remarks. Averroes also served as a magistrate, serving several positions in Seville and Córdoba. He was appointed court doctor in 1182 and chief judge of Córdoba. Following Abu Yusuf's death in 1184 he remained in royal favour, until he fell into disgrace in 1195. On different points, he was arrested and exiled to nearby Lucena. He returned to royal favour, shortly before his death on 11 December 1198. Averroes was a firm supporter of Aristotelianism; he attempted to restore what he claimed to be the original teachings of Aristotle, and opposed the Neoplatonist trends of earlier Muslim thinkers, including Al-Farabi and Avicenna. He also defended ashari theologians from criticism, such as Al-Ghazali's analysis in philosophy. Averroes argued that religion was acceptable in Islam, and also mandatory for those classes. He also argued the scriptural text should be interpreted allegorically because it seems to challenge the conclusions made up by reason and philosophy. He proposed a new theory of stroke in medicine, first recognized Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms and may have been the first to identify the retina as the portion of the body responsible for light perception. His science book Al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb, translated into Latin, and known as the Colliget, was a textbook in Europe for decades. His history in the Islamic world was modest for geographical and scholarly purposes. In the West, Averroes was known for his extensive work on Aristotle, much of which was translated into Latin and Hebrew. Translations of his research rekindled Western European interest in Aristotle and Greek writers, an field of study generally ignored after the fall of the Roman Empire. In Latin Christianity, his thoughts generated confusion and sparked a religious movement based on his writings, called Averroism. His intellectual superiority was one of the most well-known and controversial Averroist philosophies in the West, arguing that all human beings had the same intellects. His works had been condemned by Catholic Church in 1270 and 1277. While weakened by the condemnations and relentless opposition of Thomas Aquinas, Latin Averroism continued to attract adherents until the 16th century. Averroes had written comments on nearly all of Aristotle's remaining works. Politics is the only exception he had no contact with and he took notes on the Constitution of Plato. He broke his remarks into three classes considered by contemporary historians to be short, medium, and long commentaries. Most of the brief remarks in his early career is published, and contain summaries of Aristotlean doctrines. The middle notes include paraphrases that clarify and summarize the Aristotle's original text. The middle remarks were probably written in response to his patron caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf's questions about the complexities of reading Aristotle's original texts and helping others in a similar position. The lengthy remarks, or line-by-line remarks, offer a detailed explanation of each section for the full text of the original plays. The lengthy remarks are rather detailed and contain a high degree of original work, and are unlikely to be meant for a general audience. Averroes, who had served as the royal surgeon at the Almohad court, authored several medical treatises.
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    Christine de Pizan

    Christine de Pizan

    Christine's husband died from the plague in 1389, and her father died the previous year. Christine had been left behind to support her mother and son. When she was seeking to obtain funds from the estate of her parents, she was faced with difficult litigation surrounding compensation reimbursement owing to her death. On 4 June 1389 Christine was styled damoiselle and widow of Estienne du Castel in a decision surrounding a complaint brought against her by the archbishop of Sens and François Chanteprime, the King's councillors. Her father, named after the origins of the family, was known as Thomas de Pizan in the town of Pizzano, southeast Bologna. Her father was a physician, court astrologer, and councillor of the Republic of Venice. As Christine travelled to Paris in 1368 as the King's Astrologerand, Thomas de Pizan approved a court appointment for Charles V of France. In 1379 Christine de Pizan married Etienne du Castel, royal secretary, and notary. She'd had three children. Her father became a nun at the Dominican Abbey in Poissy in 1397 as a companion of the King's daughter Marie. Christine's husband died of the plague in 1389 and her dad died the year before. Christine was left behind, helping her mother and her son. She was faced with challenging lawsuits involving financial claims due to her death while she was trying to get funds from her parents 'assets. On 4 June 1389, in a decision, councillors of the King, archbishop Sens and François Chanteprime, lodged a lawsuit against her. Christine de Pizan, born in 1364, is from Venice, Italy. She had been daughter of Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano. Her father was known as Thomas de Pizan, named after the family's origins in the town of Pizzano, southeast of Bologna. Her father was a physician, court astrologer, and councillor of the Republic of Venice. Thomas de Pizan accepted an invitation to the court of Charles V of France as the King's astrologer, and Christine moved to Paris in 1368. In 1379 Christine de Pizan married Etienne du Castel, royal secretary, and notary. She'd had three children. Her father became a nun at the Dominican Abbey in Poissy in 1397 as a companion of the King's daughter Marie. Christine's husband died of the plague in 1389 and her dad died the year before. Christine was left behind, helping her mother and her son. She was faced with challenging lawsuits involving financial claims due to her death while she was trying to get funds from her parents 'assets. Christine de Pizan, born in 1364, is from Venice, Italy. She had been a girlfriend of Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano. Her father was known as Thomas de Pizan, named for the origins of the family, in the town of Pizzano, southeast Bologna. Her father was a physician, court astrologer, and councillor of the Republic of Venice. Thomas de Pizan accepted an invitation to the court of Charles V of France as the King's astrologer, and Christine moved to Paris in 1368. In 1379 Christine de Pizan married Etienne du Castel, royal secretary, and notary. She'd had three children. Her father became a nun at the Dominican Abbey in Poissy in 1397 as a companion of the King's daughter Marie. Christine's husband died of the plague in 1389 and her dad died the year before. Christine was left behind, helping her mother and her son. She was faced with challenging lawsuits involving financial claims due to her death while she was trying to get funds from her parents 'assets. On 4 June 1389 in a verdict on a lawsuit brought against her by the archbishop of Sens and François Chanteprime, councillors of the King, Christine was styled damoiselle and widow of Estienne du Castel.
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    Dōgen

    Dōgen

    Dōgen Zenji was a Japanese Buddhist monk, scholar, poet, philosopher, and member of the Japanese Zen Sōtō Academy. Originally ordained as a monk in Kyoto's Tendai Monastery, he was eventually unhappy with his teaching, and travelled to China to try out what he felt was a more pure Buddhism. He remained there for five years, and finally taught under the renowned Chinese Caodong lineage teacher Tiantong Rujing. After returning to Japan, through literary works such as Fukan zazengi and Bendōwa, he began promoting sitting meditation practise. He finally broke entirely from the influential Tendai School and left Kyoto for the mountainous countryside after many years of likely conflict between himself and the state, where he founded the Eihei-ji monastery, which today remains the head temple of the Sōtō school. Dōgen is known for his prolific writing including his most famous book, the collection of ninety-five essays called Shōbōgenzō, but also Eihei Kōroku, a collection of his lectures, poetry and commentaries, and Eihei Shingi, among others, the first Zen monastic code in Japan. Life with Dōgen recorded numerous miraculous events and auspicious signs, some of which were very famous. According to Bodiford, "Monks and laymen identified such incidents as testaments to his profound divine power, which helped to confirm the prestige of Dōgen's teachings against competing claims brought up by members of the Buddhist community and other outcast cultures. Bodiford further notes that the supernatural events at Eiheiji helped to identify the temple as a cultic centre, putting it on a par with it. Another famous incident occurred when he was heading back to Japan from China. The ship that he had been on was trapped in a hurricane. In this situation the storm was so bad, that the crew feared the ship would crash and kill them all. Then Dōgen started leading Kannon's chanting team, where the Bodhisattva stood before him and some of the group saw her as well. The atmosphere started to calm down after the vision appeared, and those aboard were of the view that they had been rescued because of the existence of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshwara. This storey is repeated in official works funded by the Sōtō Shū Head Office and in an Eihei-ji Temple water treatment tank there is also a carving of the event. Additionally, there is a copy of a 14th-century painting of the same Kannon, supposedly commissioned by Dōgen, which includes a piece of calligraphy that may be an initial in Dōgen's own hand, indicating his gratitude to Avalokiteshwara. Dōgen's interpretation of being-time or time-being is a major element of his metaphysics in the Shōbōgenzō. According to common interpretation, here "Uji" means time is time itself and it is time for all things. Uji are all the changing and dynamic things that exist during the cycle of being, it is time for all of the world's beings. Thus, the two words are spoken together to underline that the elements can not be viewed as separate concepts. The aim is not, however, to abstract time and to be like rational objects. This viewpoint was provided by scholars like Steven Heine, Joan Stambaugh and others, and served as a rationale for comparing Martin Heidegger's study of Dōgen with that of "Dasein." Recently, however, Rein Raud stated that this understanding is not right, and that Dōgen claims that all life is momentary, suggesting that such a reading would make quite a few quite cryptic passages of Shōbōgenzō quite clear. Dogen's view of morality is discussed in the Shōbōgenzō text as one that needs to be practised inwardly so that it can manifest itself externally. In other words, morality is both internal and external in the sense that good internal arrangements should be observed, and also the display of such good arrangements.